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Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary January 2006
[Summaries and Track Data] [Prepared by Gary Padgett]


                               JANUARY, 2006
  (For general comments about the nature of these summaries, as well as
  information on how to download the tabular cyclone track files, see
  the Author's Note at the end of this summary.)


                            JANUARY HIGHLIGHTS

   --> Final Atlantic tropical storm of 2005 roams central Atlantic waters
       in early January
   --> First North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone of 2006 forms
   --> Intense tropical cyclone forms in Mozambique Channel
   --> Two cyclones form off Northwestern Australia while three cyclones
       form in South Pacific



     Beginning in May, 2000, I began including with each monthly summary
  an extra feature which I called the Feature of the Month.   Beginning
  with July, 2005, I suspended these as a regular monthly item, but have
  since included some extra features as time permits.  Following is an
  index to the regular Feature of the Month from January through June,
  2005, plus the extra features included since July, 2005.

        ALSO - Index to Feature of the Month Articles for 2004




  MAY - WIND REPORTING CRITERIA (Results of 2003 survey)


  JUL - none



                       and for the NORTH INDIAN OCEAN

  NOV - none


                            ACTIVITY BY BASINS

  ATLANTIC (ATL) - North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico

  Activity for January:  1 tropical storm **
  ** - system actually formed in late December

                   Atlantic Tropical Activity for January

     As the year 2006 dawned, the first inter-annual tropical cyclone in
  51 years was stirring waters of the east-central subtropical Atlantic.
  Tropical Storm Zeta, which formed rather suddenly from a non-tropical
  LOW on 30 December, continued operating until dissipation on 6 January,
  generating a peak estimated intensity of 55 kts.  Zeta was the first
  Atlantic tropical cyclone to form in late December and continue into
  the new year since Hurricane Alice of 1954-1955.  The only other system
  in the Atlantic Best Tracks database during the month of January is
  a subtropical storm which formed in late January, 1978.   The report
  on Tropical Storm Zeta was included in the December summary.


  NORTHEAST PACIFIC (NEP) - North Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 180

  Activity for January:  No tropical cyclones


  NORTHWEST PACIFIC (NWP) - North Pacific Ocean West of Longitude 180

  Activity for January:  1 tropical depression **

  ** - not treated as a tropical depression by JTWC

              Northwest Pacific Tropical Activity for January

     One tropical system formed in the Northwest Pacific basin during
  January, as classified by JMA and PAGASA.  A tropical depression formed
  on 20 January roughly 300 nm east of the southernmost Philippine island
  of Mindanao.   JMA began including the system as a weak depression in
  the summary section of their High Seas Bulletins.  The depression moved
  on a somewhat erratic northwesterly track toward the central Philippines
  over the next few days.  On the 23rd, as it was nearing the Philippines,
  the system became slightly better organized and JMA classified it as a 
  30-kt tropical depression.    Also, PAGASA initiated warnings on the
  system, naming it Tropical Depression Agaton.    Agaton crossed the
  northern portion of Samar Island and the extreme southern tip of Luzon.
  The system then weakened but continued to move westward into the South
  China Sea.  JMA continued to follow it for a few more days, but it had
  dissipated by 27 January about halfway between southern Vietnam and
  northern Borneo.  JTWC did not classify Agaton as a tropical depression.

     A graphic depicting the track of Tropical Depression Agaton may be
  found at the following link:>


  NORTH INDIAN OCEAN (NIO) - Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea

  Activity for January:  1 tropical cyclone of gale intensity **

  ** - classified as a deep depression by IMD

                         Sources of Information

     Most of the information presented below is based upon tropical
  cyclone warnings and significant tropical weather outlooks issued
  by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center of the U. S. Air Force and
  Navy (JTWC), located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.   Occasionally some
  information may be gleaned from the daily tropical weather outlooks
  and other bulletins issued by the Indian Meteorological Department
  (IMD), which is the World Meteorological Organization's Regional
  Specialised Meteorological Centre (RSMC) for the basin.
     The reported maximum sustained winds (MSW) are based on a 1-minute
  averaging period, which is used by all U. S. civilian and military
  weather services for tropical cyclone warnings.     For synoptic
  observations in the North Indian Ocean region, both 10-minute and
  3-minute average winds are employed, but IMD makes no attempt to
  modify the Dvorak scale for estimating tropical cyclone intensity;
  hence, a 1-minute average MSW is implied.  In the North Indian Ocean
  basin JTWC usually does not initiate warnings until a system has
  become well-organized and likely to attain tropical storm status
  within 48 hours.

                            TROPICAL CYCLONE
                            13 - 17 January

     Tropical Cyclone 01A should probably be thought of as the final North
  Indian Ocean cyclone of the active 2005 fall transition season.  Starting
  with Cyclonic Storm Pyarr in mid-September, TC-01A was the seventh system
  to reach tropical storm intensity in the basin (although JTWC did not
  regard Pyarr as a tropical storm).   January tropical cyclones of gale
  intensity are very infrequent in the North Indian Ocean, although one did
  form in January of 2005--Cyclonic Storm Hibaru--along with another weaker
  tropical depression.  Prior to 2005, the last January tropical storm
  in the basin was in 1991, and no tropical cyclones of hurricane
  intensity have developed in the North Indian basin in the month of
  January since at least 1981.

     Even though it was interesting from a climatological standpoint,
  TC-01A was quite insignificant meteorologically speaking.  Peaking at
  only 40 kts (per JTWC), the cyclone was quite short-lived and remained
  over water throughout its lifetime.  A STWO issued by JTWC at 0200 UTC
  on 12 January noted that a persistent area of convection was located
  approximately 170 nm south of Colombo, Sri Lanka, with cycling but
  organized deep convection.  Animated water vapor imagery indicated a
  well-organized mid-level circulation but it was not evident that a LLCC
  existed.  Vertical wind shear was low and upper-level outflow moderately
  good.  A 12/0024 UTC QuikScat pass indicated a well-organized LLCC so
  the potential for development was upped to 'fair' at 12/1800 UTC.  Deep
  convection continued to increase around the well-defined LLCC and JTWC
  issued a TCFA at 0830 UTC on 13 January.  The circulation center was
  then estimated to be about 190 nm southwest of Colombo and observations
  in the vicinity indicated sustained winds of 20 to 30 kts.  A bulletin
  issued by RSMC New Delhi (IMD) at 13/1200 UTC noted that a depression
  had formed over the southeastern Arabian Sea.

     The first of three JTWC warnings on TC-01A was issued at 1800 UTC
  on the 13th, placing the center approximately 230 nm west-southwest of
  Colombo, tracking toward the northwest at 12 kts.   Associated convection
  was still increasing and some modest intensification was forecast over
  the next couple of days, followed by weakening as the system encountered
  strong northerly flow in the central Arabian Sea.  TC-01A reached its
  peak intensity of 40 kts at 0600 UTC on 14 January when it was centered
  about 355 nm west of Colombo.  There had been no significant change in
  convection, but water vapor imagery showed that the radial outflow was
  becoming slightly fragmented.   Only 12 hours later JTWC issued their
  final warning on the system, which was then located about 550 nm west
  of Colombo, moving west-northwestward at 16 kts.  There had been a
  significant decrease in deep convection and a 14/1348 UTC QuikScat
  pass indicated that the LLCC had become poorly-defined.  The MSW was
  still estimated at 35 kts, but TC-01A was forecast to continue weakening
  as it tracked into a less favorable environment.  The residual LLCC
  continued to track westward into the south-central Arabian Sea over the
  next 2 to 3 days, and satellite bulletins from SAB suggested that it
  remained near tropical storm intensity during this period following
  the issuance of JTWC's final warning.  Incidentally, at 14/0230 UTC SAB's
  Dvorak rating was T3.5--55 kts, implying a somewhat stronger storm than
  analyzed by JTWC.  Early on the 14th the IMD elevated the system to deep
  depression status (i.e., 30 kts), but had downgraded it back to
  depression status (25 kts) by 1200 UTC that day.

     A graphic depicting the track of Tropical Cyclone 01A may be found at
  the following link:>

     No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from Tropical
  Cyclone 01A.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)


  SOUTHWEST INDIAN OCEAN (SWI) - South Indian Ocean West of Longitude 90E

  Activity for January:  1 tropical disturbance
                         1 intense tropical cyclone

                        Sources of Information

     The primary sources of tracking and intensity information for
  Southwest Indian Ocean tropical cyclones are the warnings issued by
  the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre on La Reunion Island, part of
  Meteo France (MFR), and the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre
  for the basin.    However, tropical cyclones in this region are named 
  by the Sub-regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Centres in Mauritius and 
  Madagascar with longitude 55E being the demarcation line between their 
  respective areas of naming responsibility.  The La Reunion centre only 
  advises these agencies regarding the intensity of tropical systems.  
  References to sustained winds imply a 10-minute averaging period unless
  otherwise stated.

     In the companion tropical cyclone tracks file, I occasionally
  annotate positions from warnings issued by the Joint Typhoon Warning
  Center (JTWC) of the U. S. Air Force and Navy, located at Pearl
  Harbor, Hawaii, when they differ from MFR's coordinates by usually
  40-50 nm or more.  The JTWC warnings are also the source of the
  1-minute average maximum sustained wind values included in the
  tracks file.    Additionally, information describing details of
  satellite imagery and atmospheric circulation features included in
  the narratives is often gleaned from the JTWC warnings.

            Southwest Indian Ocean Tropical Activity for January

     Whereas the eastern portion of the Southwest Indian Ocean basin had
  been the scene of some tropical storm and cyclone activity during
  November and December, in January the focus shifted to the western
  portion of the basin, in particular the Mozambique Channel.  Highlighting
  the month of January was the extremely erratic Intense Tropical Cyclone
  Boloetse late in the month and continuing into early February.  A
  detailed report on Boloetse follows.

     Early in the month (3 January) another system formed in the Mozambique
  Channel northwest of Europe Island, moved west-southwestward to the coast
  of Mozambique, then sort of slid down the coastline, gradually working
  its way farther inland.  This system was designated as Tropical
  Disturbance 07 by MFR, the highest 10-min avg sustained wind being
  estimated at 25 kts, and this occurred while the center was just inland
  from the Channel.  JTWC's highest Dvorak rating was T2.0/2.0 at 0530 UTC
  on 5 January, while SAB had assigned Dvorak numbers of T2.5/2.5 on the
  4th while the center was still over water.  The disturbance began to
  drift farther inland on the 6th and had dissipated by the 7th.

     A graphic depicting the track of this system may be found at the
  following link:>

                            (MFR-08 / TC-09S)
                         24 January - 6 February

  Boloetse: contributed by Lesotho

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins

     If a scale could be invented to quantify the "erratic-ness" of a
  tropical cyclone's track, then surely Tropical Cyclone Boloetse would
  rank in the Top Ten of all cyclones in all basins.  This remarkable
  cyclone existed in one form or another for almost two weeks in late
  January and early February, and twice in its life became slow-moving
  and erratic with a very convoluted track, in each case describing a
  double loop.   The first occasion occurred on 26-28 January while of
  tropical storm intensity just east of southern Madagascar.  The second
  loop-de-loop happened from 31 January through 3 February in the south-
  central Mozambique Channel, during which time Boloetse intensified from
  a tropical depression into a tropical cyclone (i.e., hurricane).
  After this point, however, the cyclone's track became very straight and
  smooth, passing just off southwestern Madagascar as it sped southeast-
  ward into the subtropical Southwest Indian Ocean.

     A graphic (without date/time annotations) depicting the entire track
  of Tropical Cyclone Boloetse may be found at the following link:>

     John Diebolt has prepared three other graphics consisting of blowups
  of certain portions of Boloetse's track.  These will be referenced
  below at appropriate points.

     Boloetse's illustrious career began on 23 January when an area of
  convection formed and persisted about 300 nm north-northwest of Reunion
  Island.  A 23/1128 UTC AMSU-B pass revealed that a LLCC was developing
  near the convection.  An upper-level analysis indicated that the system
  was located within a low vertical shear environment with weak poleward
  and equatorward divergence.  RSMC La Reunion (MFR) initiated bulletins
  on the developing LOW at 0000 UTC 24 January, numbering it as Tropical
  Disturbance 08.  The center of the system was located roughly 250 nm
  north-northwest of Reunion Island.   JTWC issued a TCFA for the system
  at 24/2130 UTC--a 24/1918 UTC AMSU-B image had depicted an increase in
  convection over a very small, but well-defined, LLCC.  The developing
  disturbance at the time was tracking west-southwestward in the general
  direction of Madagascar.

  B. Synoptic History: Phase I - East of Madagascar

     Tropical Disturbance 08 continued to intensify and at 25/0000 UTC MFR
  upgraded the system to tropical depression status with 30-kt winds.  At
  the same time, JTWC issued its first warning on TC-09S with the 1-min avg
  MSW estimated at 35 kts.  Six hours later MFR had further upgraded the
  system to a moderate tropical storm with 40-kt winds (10-min avg).  The
  Meteorological Service of Madagascar concurred and assigned the official
  name, Boloetse.  At the time of its upgrade, Tropical Storm Boloetse was
  located approximately 285 nm west-northwest of Reunion Island.  The
  newly-christened storm's track became more southerly as it tracked around
  the western periphery of an anticyclone situated over the South Indian
  Ocean.   Boloetse reached an initial peak intensity of 50 kts at 0600 UTC
  26 January with the CP estimated at 990 mb.  Interestingly, while MFR
  had upped the storm's MSW, JTWC lowered their MSW estimate from 45 kts
  to 35 kts at 26/1200 UTC.

     By this time the tropical storm was entering a region of ambiguous
  steering between ridges to the east and west.  The southerly motion
  slowed and Boloetse reached the southernmost point of its track during
  this phase of its life at 26/1800 UTC, being centered about 285 nm west-
  southwest of Reunion Island.  Also, the storm was showing signs of
  weakening--at 1800 UTC MFR lowered the intensity to 40 kts.  A ridge to
  the southwest became the dominant steering influence and Boloetse
  embarked on a somewhat "zig-zaggy" northwestward track, crossing its
  earlier track once and almost reaching it again at 28/0000 UTC when
  it jogged temporarily to the north-northeast.  Unfavorable vertical
  shear continued to increase and Boloetse was downgraded to a tropical
  depression at 27/1800 UTC and further to tropical disturbance status
  at 28/1200 UTC.  After around 28/0000 UTC the system's track became
  generally westerly and ex-Boloetse's center made landfall in eastern
  Madagascar just north of Mananjary shortly before 29/0000 UTC with peak
  winds estimated at only 25 kts.  JTWC issued their final warning on the
  system at 29/0000 UTC, but MFR continued to follow the weak system west-
  ward across Madagascar.  The MFR bulletin at 29/0000 UTC forecast
  dissipation over the island, but just six hours later the next bulletin
  suggested that ex-Boloetse would emerge into the Mozambique Channel with
  a hint of some modest re-intensification.

     A graphic depicting the track of Tropical Storm Boloetse up to and
  including its Madagascar landfall may be found at the following link:>

  C. Synoptic History: Phase II - Mozambique Channel

     The weak remnant circulation of Boloetse moved westward across the
  large island of Madagascar, turning to the northwest around 30/0000 UTC
  and shortly afterward emerging into the Mozambique Channel just south
  of Morandava.  At this stage MFR was classifying ex-Boloetse as a "zone
  of disturbed weather"--the weakest classification used by that agency.
  Peak sustained winds were estimated at only 20 kts.   After reaching
  the Channel the disturbance moved somewhat to the north-northwest,
  reaching a point approximately 250 nm west-southwest of Majunga around
  30/1200 UTC.  After this, the track bent to the southwest.  The MFR
  bulletin issued at 30/0600 UTC forecast the system to eventually regain
  tropical storm status, and this is indeed what happened.  JTWC issued
  a TCFA at 30/2030 UTC, noting that the LLCC was improving in definition
  and that convection was increasing in its vicinity.  Shear was low to
  moderate and upper-level outflow was good.  MFR re-upgraded the system
  to tropical depression status at 31/0600 UTC, and 12 hours later Tropical
  Storm Boloetse had reformed about 200 nm east of Beira, Mozambique.  At
  the same time, JTWC re-initiated warnings on the storm, still designated
  as TC-09S.

     Once again Boloetse found itself in a weak steering environment.  A
  700-mb ridge to the southeast was the primary influence, but the ridge
  was broad and weak.   Over the next 1 & 1/2 days the tropical storm
  drifted north-northwestward, described a tiny counter-clockwise loop,
  moved slightly to the east, then generally southeastward.  During the
  time that Boloetse was trapped once again between two ridges,
  environmental conditions were becoming quite favorable for
  intensification:  shear was low, SSTs were warm, and outflow was good.
  Early on 2 February Boloetse began to strengthen rather rapidly--the MSW
  was bumped up from 35 kts at 01/1800 UTC to 55 kts six hours later.
  By 02/1200 UTC the storm had reached tropical cyclone (i.e., hurricane)
  intensity while located only about 30 nm north of the point at which it
  had been re-upgraded to tropical storm status two days earlier.   By
  0600 UTC 3 February a building ridge extending from an anticyclone east
  of Madagascar was beginning to influence Boloetse and the cyclone had
  begun to move on a definite southeasterly track.   Intensification had
  continued and winds were by this time up to 80 kts.

     Tropical Cyclone Boloetse reached its peak intensity of 90 kts
  (100 kts 1-min avg per JTWC) around 1800 UTC 3 February while centered
  approximately 115 nm west-northwest of Toliara on the southwestern coast
  of Madagascar, moving southeastward at 12 kts.  The minimum CP estimated
  by MFR was 946, and Boloetse at its peak remained a rather small tropical
  cyclone.  The radius of hurricane-force winds was around 30 nm, and gales
  covered a zone about 180 nm in diameter.   Based on MFR's warnings,
  Boloetse retained its 'intense tropical cyclone' classification (MSW of
  90 kts) for 18 hours before a slow weakening trend set in.  The steady
  southeasterly track continued, bringing the center of Boloetse to within
  around 20-25 nm of the southwestern Madagascar coastline around 1200 UTC
  4 February with the peak MSW estimated at 80 kts.   Following the close
  approach to Madagascar Boloetse's intensity began to decline more rapidly
  due to the effects of land interaction and higher vertical shear.

     The cyclone continued its southeasterly heading into the open South
  Indian Ocean, gradually accelerating due to the effects of an approaching
  mid-latitude trough.   Boloetse was moving at around 11 kts when it made
  its closest approach to Madagascar--24 hours later it was moving south-
  eastward at 20 kts.   After passing Madagascar the storm became
  increasingly under the influence of the mid-latitude flow and gradually
  began to lose its tropical characteristics.   By 1800 UTC 5 February
  the transition had progressed enough that MFR classified Boloetse as
  an extratropical storm with winds estimated at 55 kts.  The system
  continued to speed southeastward to higher latitudes, and the final
  MFR warning was issued at 06/1200 UTC, placing the center approximately
  1000 nm to the south-southeast of Reunion Island.

     A graphic depicting the convoluted track of Boloetse while in the
  Mozambique Channel may be found at the following link:>

     Another graphic depicting Boloetse's close approach to Madagascar and
  its subsequent dash into mid-latitudes may be found at the following

  D. Damage and Casualties

     While it is likely that gale-force winds, even gusts exceeding
  hurricane force, along with torrential rainfall, would have been
  experienced in southwestern Madagascar during the close approach of
  Tropical Cyclone Boloetse, no reports of any damage or casualties
  resulting from this tropical cyclone have been received.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)



  Activity for January:  2 severe tropical cyclones

                        Sources of Information

     The primary sources of tracking and intensity information for
  Northwest Australia/Southeast Indian Ocean tropical cyclones are 
  the warnings and advices issued by the Tropical Cyclone Warning
  Centres at Perth, Western Australia, and Darwin, Northern Territory. 
  References to sustained winds imply a 10-minute averaging period
  unless otherwise stated.

     In the companion tropical cyclone tracks file, I occasionally
  annotate positions from warnings issued by the Joint Typhoon Warning
  Center (JTWC) of the U. S. Air Force and Navy, located at Pearl
  Harbor, Hawaii, when they differ from the Australian centres' coor-
  dinates by usually 40-50 nm or more.  The JTWC warnings are also the
  source of the 1-minute average maximum sustained wind values included
  in the tracks file.   Additionally, information describing details of
  satellite imagery and atmospheric circulation features included in
  the narratives is often gleaned from the JTWC warnings.

                             7 - 10 January

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins

     Severe Tropical Cyclone Clare was the second tropical cyclone of the
  2005-2006 season to form in the Perth TCWC's AOR and the first to make
  landfall on the Australian continent.   Earlier, in mid-November, Severe
  Tropical Cyclone Bertie had formed at a very low latitude in the western
  part of the Australian Region and subsequently moved west of longitude
  90E into the Southwest Indian Ocean basin where it had been renamed
  Alvin.  Clare's story began with a weak LOW which on 4 January was
  located in the Arafura Sea north of Cape Wessel but was expected to
  move slowly westward.  By the 6th the LOW was situated in the Timor Sea
  near Bathhurst Island and the potential for development was considered
  'high' for the 9th.   However, things began happening faster than

     Early on 7 January the LOW began to show signs of developing and Perth
  initiated shipping warnings and tropical cyclone advices at 0600 UTC,
  placing the center about 300 nm north-northeast of Broome and moving
  west-southwestward at 14 kts.   Steady intensification continued and
  only six hours later Tropical Cyclone Clare was christened with winds
  estimated up to 40 kts.  Clare's center was then located about 230 nm
  north of Broome, still moving west-southwestward at 14 kts.  The rather
  rapid development seen earlier did not continue, however, as an upper-
  level anticyclone located to the south over the Kimberley region tended
  to limit poleward divergence, although it was at the same time providing
  good westward divergence.

  B. Synoptic History

     By 0000 UTC 8 January Tropical Cyclone Clare's intensity began to
  increase steadily.  The MSW was upped to 50 kts at that time, and
  15 hours later the system had reached severe tropical cyclone status
  (i.e., hurricane intensity).   At the time, Clare's center was located
  approximately 145 nm north of Port Hedland, moving southwestward at
  11 kts as it tracked around the northwestern periphery of a mid-level
  ridge center over the Australian continent.  By 0000 UTC 9 January
  Severe Tropical Cyclone Clare reached its estimated peak intensity of
  75 kts, which it maintained until after landfall.  The minimum CP 
  estimated by BoM Perth was 960 hPa.

     As Clare approached the coast its track became increasingly south-
  southwesterly.  The center of the severe tropical cyclone crossed the
  Pilbara coast just to the west of Dampier around 09/1600 UTC, or midnight
  local time.   The MSW was estimated at 75 kts with peak gusts to 105 kts
  as Clare moved onshore.  Following landfall the cyclone began to weaken
  quickly as it continued moving farther inland into the western portion
  of the state of Western Australia.   The final advice issued by BoM
  Perth at 1500 UTC 10 January placed the center of the former tropical
  cyclone about 190 km north-northeast of Gascoyne Junction, or about
  110 km northwest of Mount Augustus.

     The staff of the Perth TCWC has prepared an excellent online report
  on Severe Tropical Cyclone Clare which may be accessed at the following

  Some of the information in this write-up has been taken from the BoM

     A graphic depicting the track of Severe Tropical Cyclone Clare may be
  found at the following link:>

  C. Meteorological Observations

     Following are some preliminary observations gleaned from the BoM
  report on Clare:

  Daily Rainfall (exact times not given)

  Wickham       215 mm
  Karratha      212 mm
  Roebourne     205 mm

  Maximum Winds

  Gust of 77 kts (142 km/hr) at Karratha at 09/1150 and 09/1450 UTC

  Gust of 71 kts (131 km/hr) at Roebourne at 09/1240 UTC

  Sustained wind (10-min avg) of 71 kts (131 km/hr) at Legendre Island
  at 09/1000 UTC

  D. Damage and Casualties

     Preliminary reports indicate that communities in Clare's path escaped
  major structural damage although there were many reports of minor damage.
  Downed power lines and flooding disrupted power and telecommunications to
  many parts of the Pilbara region.  The storm surge peaked as the tide was
  approaching low tide, thus minimizing the effects of the surge.  There
  have been no reports of any storm surge damage.  Also, fortunately no
  fatalities or injuries have been reported.

  E. Additional Discussion

     Clare was unusual for a cyclone of its intensity in that JTWC's 1-min
  avg MSW estimates consistently ran well under BoM Perth's reported MSW
  values.  JTWC's peak MSW was 60 kts (1-min avg) at 09/0000 UTC, well
  under the concurrent intensity from Perth of 75 kts--roughly equivalent
  to a 1-min avg MSW of 85 kts.   Surface observations, especially the
  Legendre Island report of peak 10-min avg winds of 71 kts, support the
  intensity reported by Perth.  Clare appears to have been a case where
  the appearance in satellite imagery did not reflect the true intensity
  very well.  I saved several satellite bulletins from JTWC and SAB, and
  the highest Dvorak rating from both agencies was T3.5/3.5--55 kts for
  a 1-min avg.

     Which brings up another issue.  The Perth TCWC's decision to upgrade
  the tropical LOW to Tropical Cyclone Clare, as well as some of the
  intensity estimates later in the cyclone's lifetime, were based in part
  upon surface observations from offshore oil platforms.   BoM has access
  to this data because of contracts from the oil companies since the agency
  provides additional warning services that are in excess of "normal"
  community requirements.  The data is considered proprietary since the
  individual oil companies do not wish to make the data available to their
  competitors; hence, it is not allowed to go into the WMO data system.

  (The information in the above paragraph was based upon some information
  received from Bruce Harper.  My inclusion of this information should in
  no wise be construed to the effect that I am either in agreement with
  or critical of the oil companies' policy of keeping their data

  (Report by Gary Padgett)

                             17 - 23 January

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins

     Following about 10 days after Clare, Severe Tropical Cyclone Daryl
  formed near the Western Australian coastline and kept coastal residents
  on alert for several days as it pursued a west-southwesterly track
  parallel to the coastline, but fortunately the cyclone remained off-
  shore and eventually dissipated at sea without moving inland.  It did,
  however, reach hurricane intensity as it chugged along on its cruise
  down the coast.  Like many Timor Sea tropical cyclones, Daryl had its
  origins inland over northern Australia.   As early as 14 January a
  1001-mb tropical LOW, embedded in the monsoon trough, lay inland just
  west of Borroloola.  Over the succeeding days the LOW moved slowly
  westward and by the 16th was near the Western Australia/Northern
  Territory border.   Recognizing the potential for tropical cyclone
  development once the system moved out over the Timor Sea, the Perth
  TCWC began issuing tropical cyclone advices at 0400 UTC on 17 January.
  The poorly-defined center of the LOW was then located approximately
  200 km south-southwest of Kalumburu and was essentially stationary.

     The tropical LOW continued to drift westward and shipping bulletins
  were initiated at 18/0600 UTC with the LOW located near Kuri Bay on the
  west Kimberley coast.  With the center of the LOW located over water
  intensification proceeded quickly.  Tropical Cyclone Daryl was named
  at 18/1200 UTC, centered approximately 115 nm north-northeast of Broome
  and moving west-southwestward at 5 kts with 35-kt winds.

  B. Synoptic History

     At 1800 UTC 18 January the center of Daryl was relocated to a point
  about 40 nm north-northwest of Cape Leveque.  The MSW was upped to
  40 kts, in part due to a report of 43 kts from Adele Island, located
  approximately 40 nm to the north of the center.  JTWC issued a TCFA
  for Daryl at 2000 UTC.  The remarks in the warning referenced the Adele
  Island report, yet the agency did not issue their first warning until
  19/0000 UTC, at which time Perth had raised the MSW to 50 kts (10-min
  avg).   Daryl at this time was centered about 115 nm north-northeast of
  Broome and was moving southwestward at about 5 kts as it was guided 
  along the northwestern periphery of a mid-level ridge centered over 
  Australia.  Daryl's intensity remained fairly constant for the next 
  couple of days as it moved in a west-southwesterly direction parallel 
  to the Western Australian coastline.

     A 19/1701 UTC TRMM pass had indicated the presence of a developing
  eye, and JTWC upped the MSW to 65 kts (1-min avg) at 20/0600 UTC.
  Perth's intensity had been temporarily upped to 60 kts (10-min avg) at
  20/0000 UTC, but this was dropped back to 50 kts at 20/0600 UTC.  Daryl
  was located within an environment of fairly strong easterly shear which
  kept much of the deep convection pushed to the west of the partially-
  exposed LLCC.   Convection increased on the 20th in the western and
  northern quadrants of Daryl due to a small upper-level anticyclone
  which became superimposed on the tropical cyclone, helping to
  ameliorate somewhat the effects of the moderate to high vertical shear.
  BoM Perth upgraded Daryl to severe tropical cyclone (i.e., hurricane)
  status with 65-kt winds at 1800 UTC, locating the center approximately
  115 nm north-northeast of Karratha.    Daryl was then moving west-
  southwestward at 14 kts with the minimum CP estimated at 965 hPa.

     The cyclone did not remain at hurricane intensity for very long--at
  21/0300 UTC Perth lowered the MSW back to 55 kts.  Satellite and radar
  imagery indicated that deep convection had decreased during the past
  few hours.  As the 21st progressed convection continued to wane and
  the upper and lower-level circulations began to decouple.  Accordingly,
  the warnings from both Perth and JWTC showed a decline in the intensity
  as Daryl continued to move west-southwestward parallel to the coastline.
  By 22/1200 UTC the LLCC was fully-exposed with cycling deep convection
  located along the western periphery of the system.  JTWC issued their
  final warning on Daryl at this time.  The Perth TCWC continued to main-
  tain Daryl as a 40-kt tropical cyclone for another 18 hours.  The final
  gale warning from Perth was issued at 0600 UTC 23 January, placing the
  center approximately 225 nm west-northwest of Carnarvon.  Maximum winds
  had decreased to 30 kts and the ex-Daryl LOW was moving southwestward
  at 15 kts and expected to dissipate.

     On 20 January some very cold cloud tops were noted in infrared
  satellite imagery in association with Tropical Cyclone Daryl, the
  coldest being -102.1 Deg C.  The very cold tops colder than -100 Deg C
  persisted for several hours, suggesting that they were not isolated
  overshooting tops, but rather something of a more continuous nature with
  a very cold local tropopause.

     A graphic depicting the track of Severe Tropical Cyclone Daryl may be
  found at the following link:>

  C. Damage and Casualties

     Although Tropical Cyclone Daryl moved fairly close to the Western
  Australian coastline and some areas may have experienced gale-force
  or near gale-force gusts, no reports of significant damage nor any
  casualties have been received.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)



  Activity for January:  1 severe tropical cyclone
                         1 over land monsoon LOW

                        Sources of Information

     The primary sources of tracking and intensity information for
  Northeast Australia/Coral Sea tropical cyclones are the warnings
  and advices issued by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres at
  Brisbane, Queensland, and Darwin, Northern Territory, and on very
  infrequent occasions, by the centre at Port Moresby, Papua New
  Guinea.  References to sustained winds imply a 10-minute averaging
  period unless otherwise stated.

     In the companion tropical cyclone tracks file, I occasionally
  annotate positions from warnings issued by the Joint Typhoon Warning
  Center (JTWC) of the U. S. Air Force and Navy, located at Pearl
  Harbor, Hawaii, when they differ from the Australian centres' coor-
  dinates by usually 40-50 nm or more.  The JTWC warnings are also the
  source of the 1-minute average maximum sustained wind values included
  in the tracks file.   Additionally, information describing details of
  satellite imagery and atmospheric circulation features included in
  the narratives is often gleaned from the JTWC warnings.

     For the portion of Tropical Cyclone Jim's track lying east of
  longitude 160E, the following applies:

     The primary sources of tracking and intensity information for
  South Pacific tropical cyclones are the warnings and advisories
  issued by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres at Nadi, Fiji (for
  waters north of latitude 25S), and Wellington, New Zealand (for
  waters south of latitude 25S).  References to sustained winds imply
  a 10-minute averaging period unless otherwise stated.

                        24 January - 1 February

     The Northern Territory Monsoon LOW had its origins as a weak 
  westerly-moving tropical LOW in the Arafura Sea just off the northern 
  coast of the Northern Territory late in January.  The LOW swung 
  southwestward around the Tiwi Islands on 24 January as a 999-hPa LOW 
  and then progressed southward to make landfall to the west of Darwin. 
  The LOW continued to drift in a slow, zigzag path between the western 
  border and the central part of the Northern Territory and was 
  particularly notable as it deepened over land. 

     While over land, the LOW exhibited the large scale structure of a 
  tropical cyclone in satellite imagery, but was without the inner 
  core, eye wall and spatially-restricted zone of very high wind-speeds 
  around the eye that would normally be associated with a tropical 
  cyclone.  Nonetheless, on 30 and 31 January the LOW exhibited an eye-
  like feature, and throughout its life was associated with convection 
  in the form of rotating bands, similar in appearance to the outer 
  bands of a tropical cyclone.  An estimated minimum central pressure of 
  989 hPa is thought to have been achieved at 31/0000 UTC.  Thereafter, 
  the LOW rapidly dispersed over the southwestern corner of the 
  Northern Territory.    

     The LOW initiated an active monsoon onset over the northern Top 
  End, and brought heavy falls to many parts of the western Northern 
  Territory, including some areas of the Tanami Desert, which exceeded 
  their annual average rainfall in just a few days.
     BoM reported heavy rainfalls in the Darwin region, with many 
  24-hour totals exceeding 100 mm.  Some major totals were 204.6 mm at 
  Larrakeyah on 24 January and 184 mm at Channel Point in the 24 hours
  ending at 9:00 AM on 25 January.  As the LOW passed through the Victoria
  River District, the Victoria Highway was cut by floodwaters, isolating
  Timber Creek and the Victoria River Crossing.   

     The LOW continued to move south into the Tanami Desert, where it 
  produced a record breaking 239 mm of rain at Suplejack in the 24 hours
  ending at 9:00 AM on 31 January.  This was broken again on the following
  day with another 243 mm falling.  As the LOW moved south of Darwin,
  strong winds prevailed along the north coast in the monsoon flow to the
  north of the system with some significant wind gusts recorded, mainly in
  monsoon squall lines.   BoM reported that Elcho Island received gusts
  to 45 kts (80-85 km/h).  Charles Point also recorded gusts to 44 kts
  (81 km/h) and Woolner received a 52-kt (96 km/h) wind gust during a 
  monsoon squall line just after midday on 31 January.   Furthermore, as 
  the LOW deepened over land over the central Tanami Desert, sustained 
  winds to near gale-force were produced at Rabbit Flat.  Winds 
  averaging in excess of 25 kts were experienced at the station from 
  before 31/0800 UTC until after 31/2300 UTC, peaking at 32 kts, 
  gusting to 45 kts, at 1100 UTC.   The peak gust of 49 kts (91 km/h) 
  from the west-northwest was recorded at 31/1137 UTC.   Also, Rabbit 
  Flat received 165 mm of rain in the 24 hours ending at 9:00 AM on 
  1 February.

     A comprehensive discussion of the Northern Territory Monsoon Low 
  can be found at:>

     Australian storm chaser Michael Bath has made available on his 
  website an animated satellite picture loop for the week 26 January
  to 1 February:>

  (Note: This is a 10-Mbyte file.)

  (Report written by Simon Clarke with substantial commentary provided
  by BoM)

                         TROPICAL CYCLONE JIM
                           (TC-10P / TD-08F)
                        26 January - 2 February

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins

     On 24 January 2006 the monsoon trough swept southwards over 
  northern Australia, linking from a monsoon depression off the Top End 
  of the Northern Territory (see separate report - Northern Territory 
  Monsoon Low) to a broad area of LOW pressure which was establishing 
  itself close to the tropical north coast of Queensland between Cairns
  and Ingham. 

     By 24/2300 UTC, moist northeasterly winds were being drawn onto 
  the coast south of the small LOW.  Particularly heavy rain was 
  recorded on the coastline between Ingham and Townsville in the warm 
  air advection set up in response to a 700-hPa thermal trough 
  extending up to North Queensland from the south. 

     Over the next 24 hours the low deepened to 1004 hPa and moved to a 
  position approximately 55 nm off the coast near Cardwell.  Satellite 
  imagery depicted increasing convection near a well-defined LLCC which 
  was moving slowly to the east-northeast at 5 kts.  Over this 24-hour 
  period the warm air advection increased in strength and rainfall 
  intensified along the Queensland coast between Ingham and Townsville. 

     The LOW continued to deepen as it drifted away from the coast, 
  being steered along the southern periphery of a mid-level ridge to 
  its north.  An upper-level analysis indicated that the system was 
  located near a ridge axis with low to moderate vertical wind shear 
  and favorable divergence aloft.

     By 27/1800 UTC the central pressure (990 hPa) could be accurately 
  calculated from surrounding observations as the LOW passed to the 
  east of Flinders Reef (WMO 94290), where the winds were 150/35 kts 
  (10-min mean) and the mean sea level pressure was 994.2 hPa.  The 
  system was code named Jim six hours later at 28/0000 UTC near 17.3S/ 
  149.5E, or approximately 200 nm east of Cairns, Queensland. 

  B. Synoptic History
     As Tropical Cyclone Jim continued to deepen and move offshore in a 
  general east to east-northeasterly direction, sporadic gale force 
  winds were experienced well to the south of the centre in the 
  Whitsunday Islands region of Queensland.  The cyclone passed to the 
  south of Willis Island where westerly winds averaging 33 kts were 
  recorded at 28/0200 UTC.  Jim passed to the north of Lihou Reef (WMO 
  94296) at 28/0500 UTC with a MSLP there of 995.2 hPa with easterly 
  winds averaging 35 kts a short time later. 
     The upper-level outflow gradually improved over the system and 
  convection consolidated around the LLCC, resulting in intensification.
  The peak intensity--an estimated CP of 955 hPa and peak MSW (10-min avg)
  of 80 kts--was attained near 17.7S/161.4E, or about 400 nm northwest of
  Noumea, New Caledonia, at 30/0600 UTC.  This intensity was maintained for
  a further 24 hours as Jim was steered to the east-southeast at 20 kts by
  the equatorial ridge oriented northwest-southeast and an upper-level LOW
  situated poleward of the LLCC.

     Jim turned to the southeast, passing approximately 90 nm parallel 
  to the northeastern coastline of New Caledonia and gradually weakened 
  as upper-level shear increased over the cyclone. 
     Forward momentum slowed in response to the filling of the upper-
  level LOW to the south of the system, which also resulted in a 
  relaxation of the mid-level flow that was steering the cyclone.  In 
  turn, the subtropical ridge to the west of the system built eastwards,
  blocking Jim's path.  High vertical wind shear, lack of good upper-level
  outflow, low sea surface temperatures and the entrainment of cold air
  from the south eventually led to the demise of Jim and the system was
  classified as extratropical at 1200 UTC on 1 February near 30.0S/175.0E,
  or approximately 375 nm east-southeast of Norfolk Island.  Convection
  became displaced from the LLCC, which persisted as a vortex clearly seen
  in visible imagery for several days after.  This vortex became stranded
  by the subtropical ridge to the south and gradually performed a U-turn,
  drifting slowly northwestward back toward New Caledonia before finally
  dissipating over water without any appreciable redevelopment.

     A graphic depicting the track of Severe Tropical Cyclone Jim may be
  found at the following link:>

  C. Casualties and Damage

     There were no reports of significant damage in Queensland as a 
  result of Jim.  Heavy rain was driven on-shore between Ingham and 
  Townsville, causing flooding of coastal rivers and streams.  BoM 
  reported the heaviest falls in the 24 hours to 9:00 AM on 27 January 
  of 258 mm at Home Hill, 211 mm at Lucinda, 189 mm at Alva Beach and 
  188 mm at Townsville.
     A barge being used in the reconstruction of the Willis Island 
  Meteorological Station (mid Coral Sea) was damaged during the storm 
  and lost the loading ramp on its front. 
     On 31 January, the Solomon's port of Guadalcanal was closed to 
  shipping as the result of strong winds and rough seas.  In Honiara, 
  the Ramos III of the Malaita Shipping Company blew from its anchoring 
  spot to the shoreline.  It was reported that many Honiara residents 
  were left "shocked to see the vessel being thrown aground by the 
  tossing waves".  No one was aboard the vessel at the time.  Elsewhere, 
  parts of the main highway and sections of the feeder roads were reported
  as being covered with water.
     Jim passed just north of New Caledonia on 30-31 January, brushing 
  the islands with strong winds and heavy rainfall, but no significant 
  damage was reported.  A maximum alert was announced for the North 
  Eastern Loyalty Islands where a direct impact was thought a strong 
  possibility.  However, Jim left the Northern Group of Islands largely 
     Despite being placed well to the west of Fiji, Jim was blamed for 
  heavy downpours that caused widespread flash-flooding that cut roads, 
  damaged crops and ruined businesses in the western part of Fiji's 
  main island, Viti Levu.  Most schools in western and northern Fiji 
  were closed while several public roads north of the country's 
  international airport were flooded and closed to all traffic. 

     No fatalities or serious injuries were reported in any of the 
  areas affected by the cyclone.

  (Report written by Simon Clarke)


  SOUTH PACIFIC (SPA) - South Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 160E

  Activity for January:  3 tropical depressions
                         1 tropical cyclone of gale intensity
                         1 tropical cyclone of storm intensity
                         1 tropical cyclone of hurricane intensity **

  ** - system formed in Bribane's AOR and entered Fiji's AOR already at
       hurricane strength

                        Sources of Information

     The primary sources of tracking and intensity information for
  South Pacific tropical cyclones are the warnings and advisories
  issued by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres at Nadi, Fiji (for
  waters north of latitude 25S), and Wellington, New Zealand (for
  waters south of latitude 25S).  References to sustained winds imply
  a 10-minute averaging period unless otherwise stated.

     In the companion tropical cyclone tracks file, I occasionally
  annotate positions from warnings issued by the Joint Typhoon Warning
  Center (JTWC) of the U. S. Air Force and Navy, located at Pearl
  Harbor, Hawaii, when they differ from the Southern Hemisphere
  centres' coordinates by usually 40-50 nm or more.  The JTWC warnings
  are also the source of the 1-minute average maximum sustained wind
  values included in the tracks file.    Additionally, information
  describing details of satellite imagery and atmospheric circulation
  features included in the narratives is often gleaned from the JTWC

                South Pacific Tropical Activity for January

     The first two named tropical cyclones of the 2005-2006 South Pacific
  season came to life in January.   Both Tam and Urmil formed around
  mid-month over waters between Fiji and Samoa and moved off quickly to
  the southeast.   Reports on these cyclones, written by Simon Clarke,

     Three other systems were numbered as tropical depressions by RSMC
  Nadi, Fiji.  Tropical Depression 05F formed on 10 January about 115 nm
  east-southeast of Pago Pago, American Samoa.   At the time this system
  formed, the pre-Tam depression (TD-04F) was struggling to get its act
  together farther to the west, and it looked for a time as if TD-05F
  might become the dominant system, but it moved southward into an area
  of increasing vertical shear and began to weaken, thus giving TD-04F
  a better chance of developing.  The last reference to TD-05F, at 0600
  UTC on 13 January, placed the weakening center about 200 nm east-
  southeast of Tongatapu.   A graphic depicting the track of Tropical
  Depression 05F may be found at the following link:>

     Also around mid-month, Fiji designated another low pressure area as
  Tropical Depression 07F.  At 0600 UTC on the 15th TD-07F was located
  roughly 425 nm to the north of Fiji.  The system began to move slowly
  to the southwest at 5 kts but remained very weak with winds estimated
  at no more than 15 kts.  The final reference to the system in Fiji's
  Tropical Weather Bulletins at 16/1800 UTC placed the LOW approximately
  175 nm west-northwest of Fiji.   Tropical Depression 09F was very brief,
  appearing in Nadi's bulletins only on 30 January.  At 30/0900 UTC it was
  located about 125 nm east-northeast of Noumea, New Caledonia, moving
  quickly to the southeast at 20 kts, and this was the last mention of this
  system in Nadi's bulletins.   Tracks were not included for TD-07F and
  TD-09F in the companion cyclone tracks file.

                         TROPICAL CYCLONE TAM
                           (TD-04F / TC-06P)
                            6 - 15 January

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins

     Tropical Cyclone Tam was the first tropical cyclone to form in the 
  Southwest Pacific for the 2005/2006 season in what could be considered
  a late start for this region.

     Tam was first identified as Tropical Depression 04F near 15.0S/ 
  179.5E, or approximately 200 nm north-northeast of Fiji, as early as 
  6 January 2006.  At this time, TD-04F was located under the 250-hPa 
  ridge which sustained its deep convection to the north and east of 
  the LLCC.  Environmental shear was low over the system.  However, 
  with no appreciable surges in the low-level subtropical airflow, the 
  system lingered for a few days while moving slowly west-southwestward 
  towards the main Fiji Islands of Vanua Levu and Viti Levu.  The 
  depression fluctuated between phases of strengthening and weakening, 
  affected by diurnal influences with periods of dry air entrainment 
  and occasional strong shear evident in its western quadrants.  
  Occasionally, the LLCC lost most of its deep convection.  

      On 9 January, TD-04F drifted north, moving into an area of upper-
  level divergence with minimal shear and re-assimilated with the South 
  Pacific ITCZ.  The region was experiencing intensifying monsoonal 
  activity with a new and stronger depression (TD-05F) developing to 
  the east of TD-04F.  This new depression threatened to dominate and 
  absorb TD-04F.  SSTs in the region were approximately 29-30 C with 
  moist tropical air feeding into both systems from the north, producing
  a conducive environment for further development. 
     At 10/2100 UTC, TD-05F was located near 15.2S/169.0W, or about
  115 nm southeast of Pago Pago, American Samoa, and moving south-
  southeastward to the south of Niue at 12 kts into a region of 
  increasing environmental shear.  This system failed to develop any 
  further as a result, and this in turn provided TD-04F with the 
  opportunity to intensify.  By 12/0600 UTC the centre of TD-04F
  (991 hPa) was located near 14.7S/177.3W, or roughly 335 nm northeast
  of Fiji, moving eastward at 15 kts and was officially upgraded to 
  tropical cyclone status and named Tam by RSMC Nadi. 

  B. Synoptic History
     The newly-christened Tam was steered to the southeast by the deep 
  environmental northwesterlies while deep convection formed a cold 
  overcast over the LLCC.  Tam reached a peak intensity of maximum 10- 
  min avg winds of 45 kts at 13/0000 UTC (near 17.0S/173.2W) with a CP
  of 987 hPa.  The cyclone was located approximately 200 nm southwest
  of Pago Pago, American Samoa, at this time.
     Thereafter, Tam continued to maintain deep convection close to the 
  LLCC despite vertical shear increasing over the system as the 
  translational speed of the LLCC resulted in negligible resultant 
  shear.  However, by 13/1200 UTC, Tam's convective tops were being 
  blown off to the southeast by the increasing upper-level wind shear.
     Decreasing SSTs, strong upper-level shear and overall acceleration
  to the south at 30 kts resulted in Tam's being declared extratropical 
  near 33.0S/168.0W, or approximately 835 nm southwest of Rarotonga, by 
  14/1200 UTC.  The extratropical LOW continued to race to the south,
  being located several hundred miles east of New Zealand's North Island
  by 15/0000 UTC.
     A graphic depicting the track of Tropical Cyclone Tam may be found 
  at the following link:>

     Another graphic with a blow-up of the earlier portion of Tam's track
  may be found at the following link:>

  C. Damage and Casualties

     Tam passed as close as 20 nm to Niuafo'ou, Tonga (population 500), 
  while at minimal tropical storm strength.  There were no reports of 
  any significant damage to this island or elsewhere throughout its 
  passage across the South Pacific.  Niue reported widespread fallen 
  branches, minor damage to crops and some localized power interruption,
  but nothing of significance.  This minor damage probably resulted from
  the combined stormy effects of Tropical Cyclone Tam and Tropical
  Depression 05F.

  (Report written by Simon Clarke)

                        TROPICAL CYCLONE URMIL
                           (TD-06F / TC-07P)
                            13 - 15 January

     Tropical Cyclone Urmil was a short-lived cyclone that followed a 
  similar track to that taken by Tropical Cyclone Tam a couple of days 

     TD-06F was first identified near 14.0S/174.0W, or approximately 
  200 nm west of Pago Pago, American Samoa, at 13/1800 UTC, moving to 
  the southeast at 10 kts.  Tropical Cyclone Tam was located to the 
  southeast of TD-06F at this time and moving rapidly to the southeast 
  and weakening.  TD-06F rapidly spun up in Tam's wake under favourable 
  conditions of divergent 250-hpa flow, moderate environmental shear 
  and SST's of 29 C.    

     By 13/2100 UTC, TD-06F was officially upgraded to cyclone status 
  and named Urmil.  The cyclone was located near 15.3S/174.1W, or 
  approximately 190 nm west-southwest of Pago Pago, American Samoa, and 
  continuing to move in an ever-accelerating path to the southeast.
     Urmil's peak intensity (CP of 975 hPa - maximum 10-min avg wind of 
  60 kts ) was reached at 14/1200 UTC when the centre was located about 
  160 nm northeast of Tongatapu (near 19.8S/172.8W).  This followed a 
  6-hour period of explosive development whereby the primary band 
  completely wound around Urmil's LLCC.  At this time, environmental 
  conditions were favourable for development despite upper-level shear 
  of approximately 20 kts.  The resultant shear had a negligible effect 
  given the increasing translational speed of the cyclone at the surface.

     However, the cyclone was running into ever-increasing vertical 
  shear and was soon to lose its organisation with cloud tops decreasing
  in spatial extent and warming significantly near its centre.   At
  15/0000 UTC, Urmil's deep convection was displaced about 0.5 degrees to
  the south of the exposed LLCC.  The cyclone was subsequently downgraded
  to an extratropical depression six hours later near 25.0S/170.0W, or
  approximately 620 nm west-southwest of Rarotonga in the Cook Islands.
  Ultimately, the remnant LOW lost its identity soon afterward in the
  mid-latitude westerlies.

     A graphic depicting the track of Tropical Cyclone Urmil may be 
  found at the following link:>
     Urmil passed as close as 50 nm east of the Vava'u Group and 80 nm 
  east of the Ha'api Group, producing little more than intermittent 
  gales and storm-swept tides.  Urmil also passed midway between 
  Tongatapu and Niue (approximately 110 nm from each), and again there 
  were no reports of significant damage.

  (Report written by Simon Clarke)



     The purpose of this section is to list some websites where many and
  varied types of tropical cyclone information are archived.  Many readers
  will know about these already, but for the benefit of those who don't,
  I wanted to include them. 

  (1) Aircraft Reconnaissance Information

     Various types of messages from reconnaissance aircraft may be
  retrieved from the following FTP site:>

     Information regarding how to interpret the coded reconnaissance
  messages may be found at the following URL:>

  Links are also included to websites with further information about the
  U. S. Air Force 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron and the NOAA Air-
  craft Operations Center.

  (2) Archived Advisories

     All the advisory products (public advisories, forecast/advisories,
  strike probabilities, discussions, various graphics) issued by TPC/NHC
  are archived on TPC's website.  For the current year (using 2004 as an
  example), the archived products can be found at:>

  Links to tropical products archives for earlier years are available at
  the following URL:>

  JTWC warnings for past storms are archived on the NRL Monterry website:>

  On the NRL site, the link to past years can be found in the upper left 
  corner of the screen.

     I am not aware at the moment of any other TCWC which archives all
  its tropical cyclone warning/advisory products for public access, but
  if I learn of any, I will add them to this list.

  (3) Satellite Imagery

     Satellite images of tropical cyclones in various sensor bands are
  available on the NRL Monterrey and University of Wisconsin websites,
  courtesy of Jeff Hawkins and Chris Velden and their associates.  The
  links are:>>

  On the NRL site, the link to past years can be found in the upper left 
  corner of the screen.  For the CIMSS site, a link to data archives is 
  located in the lower left portion of the screen.

     Additional tropical satellite imagery, along with looping ability for
  composite microwave imagery for the Western Hemisphere north of the
  equator, can be found at:

  (1) For the Eastern North Pacific:>

  (2) For the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea:>

     I'm sure there are other sites with available imagery available, and
  as I learn of them, I will add the links to this list.


                              EXTRA FEATURE

     In order to shorten the amount of typing in preparing the narrative
  material, I have been in the habit of freely using abbreviations and
  acronyms.   I have tried to define most of these with the first usage
  in a given summary, but I may have missed one now and then.  Most of
  these are probably understood by a majority of readers but perhaps a
  few aren't clear to some.  To remedy this I developed a Glossary of
  Abbreviations and Acronyms which I first included in the August, 1998
  summary.  I don't normally include the Glossary in most months in
  order to help keep them from being too long.  If anyone would like to
  receive a copy of the Glossary, please e-mail me and I'll be happy
  to send them a copy.


  AUTHOR'S NOTE:  This summary should be considered a very preliminary 
  overview of the tropical cyclones that occur in each month. The cyclone
  tracks (provided separately) will generally be based upon operational
  warnings issued by the various tropical cyclone warning centers.  The
  information contained therein may differ somewhat from the tracking and
  intensity information obtained from a "best-track" file which is based
  on a detailed post-seasonal analysis of all available data. Information
  on where to find official "best-track" files from the various warning
  centers will be passed along from time to time.

    The track files are not being sent via e-mail.  They can be retrieved
  from the archive sites listed below.  (Note: I do have a limited e-mail
  distribution list for the track files.    If anyone wishes to receive
  these via e-mail, please send me a message.)

    Both the summaries and the track files are standard text files
  created in DOS editor.  Download to disk and use a viewer such as
  Notepad or DOS editor to view the files.

     The first summary in this series covered the month of October,
  1997.   Back issues can be obtained from the following websites
  (courtesy of Michael Bath, Michael V. Padua, Michael Pitt, Chris
  Landsea, and John Diebolt):>>>>>

     Another website where much information about tropical cyclones may
  be found is the website for the UK Meteorological Office.  Their site
  contains a lot of statistical information about tropical cyclones
  globally on a monthly basis.  The URL is:>


     JTWC now has available on its website the Annual Tropical Cyclone
  Report (ATCR) for 2004 (2003-2004 season for the Southern Hemisphere).
  ATCRs for earlier years are available also.

     The URL is:>

     Also, TPC/NHC has available on its webpage nice "technicolor"
  tracking charts for the 2004 Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific
  tropical cyclones; also, storm reports for all the 2004 Atlantic
  and Eastern North Pacific cyclones are now available, as well as
  track charts and reports on storms from earlier years. 

     The URL is:>

     A special thanks to Michael Bath of McLeans Ridges, New South Wales,
  Australia, for assisting me with proofreading the summaries.


  Gary Padgett
  E-mail:  [email protected]
  Phone:  334-222-5327

  Kevin Boyle  (Eastern Atlantic, Western Northwest Pacific, South
                China Sea)
  E-mail:  [email protected]

  Simon Clarke  (Northeast Australia/Coral Sea, South Pacific)
  E-mail:  [email protected]


Document: summ0601.htm
Updated: 18th April 2006

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