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Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary July 2001
[Summaries and Track Data] [Prepared by Gary Padgett]

                                JULY, 2001

  (For general comments about the nature of these summaries, as well as
  information on how to download the tabular cyclone track files, see
  the Author's Note at the end of this summary.)

  SPECIAL NOTE:  Tony Cristaldi of the NWS office in Melbourne, Florida,
  rather inadvertently "discovered" a hitherto unreported tropical (or
  possibly subtropical) cyclone which occurred in the Southwest Indian
  Ocean in April.  According to Philippe Caroff of the La Reunion TCWC,
  this system formed to the south of Reunion's AOR; therefore, no
  warnings were issued on the cyclone.  This system is being researched
  and hopefully more information and a track will be forthcoming in a
  couple of months.


                             JULY HIGHLIGHTS
  --> Western North Pacific quite active--three typhoons make landfall
  --> One hurricane and two minor tropical storms in Northeast Pacific


                ***** Feature of the Month for July *****

     As noted last month, the responses to my tropical cyclone survey on
  the subject of subtropical/hybrid cyclones tended to address two
  different issues.   In the June Feature of the Month I related some
  of the respondees' comments on meteorological aspects of cyclone
  classification and how subtropical systems should be treated with
  regard to inclusion in the Best Tracks databases.  Most of those
  comments were from persons whose primary basin of interest is the
  Atlantic.   Several forecasters from the Southern Hemisphere addressed
  the problem of providing adequate warnings for these systems.

     Philippe Caroff, Chief Forecaster of the Meteo France La Reunion
  TCWC, pointed out that in the Southwest Indian Ocean warnings are
  issued for subtropical cyclones--the main problem being when to
  estimate the point at which a given system is no longer mainly hybrid
  but primarily tropical in nature.   Philippe would personally favor
  naming subtropical cyclones when the gale criteria is satisfied.  David
  Roth of HPC also indicated that he had no problem with subtropical
  cyclones being named as tropical cyclones in real-time.  

     Steve Ready of the New Zealand Meteorological Service related that
  currently Australia and New Zealand are looking into ways to handle
  and possibly name disturbances which originate in the heart of the
  tropics before transferring to the subtropics and cranking up into
  severe cyclonic circulations with hurricane or near-hurricane force
  winds.   Jeff Callaghan of the Brisbane TCWC points out that sub-
  tropical systems constitute a serious threat to Australia, especially
  Queensland and New South Wales.  Tropical cyclone warnings may not
  be adequate for these types of storms since tropical cyclone warnings
  normally refer to a point location.  The radius of maximum winds tends
  to be larger in hybrid systems, and winds can reach hurricane force
  in a zone well-removed from the center.  Milton Speer feels that
  hybrid systems need to be flagged or named in some way that would
  indicate their subtropical nature but would distinguish them from
  purely tropical systems.  Jeff Callaghan mentioned that the suggestion
  has been made to give hybrid storms code names based on the Greek

     Just as the issue of deciding whether or not to classify a given
  storm as tropical or subtropical can be problematic, so also can the
  boundary between subtropical and extratropical present a problem when
  trying to design warnings specifically for subtropical/hybrid cyclones.
  As a case in point, Jeff Callaghan writes,  "Two (storms) which we
  compared were one interacting with a mid-latitude trough though with
  tropical characteristics (May, 1999 -- TD-26F) and one interacting
  with an extremely vigorous mid-latitude trough.  So if you think
  tropical you would name the 1999 event and ignore the 1994 event which
  devastated a yachting fleet between Tonga and New Zealand.   On the
  surface mariners would depict little difference between the two
  systems."  Jeff also contrasted the March (2001) subtropical storm
  which caused significant damage in Queensland and New South Wales with
  an earlier system in February which also produced storm-force winds
  and serious flooding.  The March system moved over 26 C water and
  developed pronounced tropical characteristics as it moved away from
  the subtropical jet and neared the coast, while the February system,
  which developed in a quite similar fashion, remained close to the jet
  and never developed tropical characteristics.  But, again, as Jeff
  points out, there would be little difference to a mariner.

     With regard to the Atlantic basin, Rich Henning, a meteorologist
  at Eglin AFB and a member of the Hurricane Hunters squadron, feels that
  tropical-style warnings should not be issued to the public until a
  system has acquired enough tropical characteristics to warrant naming
  as a tropical cyclone, but that warnings classifying a system as a
  subtropical storm could be issued to the marine/military community as
  a means of highlighting the fact that the storm had some features of
  tropical cyclones and that the potential existed for perhaps rapid
  evolution into a more classic tropical storm or hurricane.  However,
  as stated in last month's Feature, Rich is definitely in favor of
  including subtropical storms in the Best Tracks database so that it
  will contain a complete tropical cyclone climatology for research

     More could certainly be said on this subject, but the purpose of
  this month's Feature was to summarize responses to my survey of a
  few months ago.   Perhaps in the near future a sort of conference
  with representatives from the various tropical cyclone warning centers
  could be convened to discuss subtropical/hybrid cyclones (just as in
  the 1980s there were a couple of conferences held for the purpose of
  discussing polar LOWs).  Next month I'll summarize the responses to
  my survey on the subject of monsoon depressions.

                           ACTIVITY BY BASINS

  ATLANTIC (ATL) - North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico

  Activity for July:  1 tropical depression

  NOTE:  Some of the information presented below was obtained from the
  TPC/NHC discussion bulletins issued with every regular advisory.  All
  references to sustained winds imply a 1-min averaging period unless
  otherwise noted. 

                   Atlantic Tropical Activity for July

     Only one tropical cyclone developed in the Atlantic basin in July.
  This was a short-lived tropical depression which formed early on the
  12th about 950 nm east of the island of Barbados.  Tropical Depression
  #2 formed over SSTs which were a little too cool to allow for
  significant strengthening, and the depression had lost its LLCC by
  2100 UTC on the 12th about 650 nm east of Barbados.  Maximum sustained
  winds were estimated at only 25 kts.  Some of the numerical models had
  forecast some modest intensification, but the GFDL model from the
  outset forecast dissipation within 24 hours, and that is exactly what
  happened.  The final discussion on the system (at 12/2100 UTC) noted
  that the wave still retained a vigorous mid-level circulation.   The
  wave continued westward through the Caribbean Sea and eventually moved
  into the Eastern Pacific where it developed into Hurricane Dalila.


  NORTHEAST PACIFIC (NEP) - North Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 180

  Activity for July:  2 tropical storms
                      1 hurricane

  NOTE:  Much of the information presented below was obtained from the
  TPC/NHC discussion bulletins issued with every regular advisory (CPHC
  for locations west of 140W.)  All references to sustained winds imply
  a 1-min averaging period unless otherwise noted. 

              Northeast Pacific Tropical Activity for July

     July, 2001, was a little less active than usual in the Northeast
  Pacific basin.  Averages for the month include about 4 named storms,
  2 hurricanes with one hurricane on the average reaching Category 3
  on the Saffir/Simpson scale.  This year there were 3 named storms
  with one reaching minimal hurricane intensity--there were no intense
  hurricanes.  In addition to the named storms, there was a well-
  organized tropical disturbance early in the month which almost became
  a tropical depression.   This system was located on the 7th and 8th
  roughly about 950-1000 nm southwest of the tip of Baja California.
  Satellite data indicated winds of up to around 20 kts in the broad
  circulation, but the system began to move over marginal SSTs which
  thwarted any further development.

     The reports below on Cosme, Dalila, and Erick were written by
  John Wallace of San Antonio, Texas.  A very special thanks to John
  for writing the summaries.

                      Tropical Storm Cosme (TC-03E)
                              13 - 15 July

  A. Origins

     The tropical wave that spawned Cosme was first noted in the Eastern
  Pacific on 7 July, just west of Central America.  A tropical LOW
  formed along the wave axis on the 10th as the wave tracked slowly
  westward.  The LOW soon replaced the tropical wave and organization
  steadily improved.  By 0900 UTC on 13 July, the LOW's organization had
  increased enough to justify its upgrade to Tropical Depression Three-E
  while located about 325 nm southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico.    The
  depression tracked west-northwestward around the periphery of a
  mid-level ridge to its north.

  B. Track and Intensity History

     A large and impressive CDO developed over Three-E upon its first
  warning, even in the face of easterly shear.  Satellite data supported
  the system's upgrade to Tropical Storm Cosme at 1500 UTC on 13 July
  roughly 400 nm west-southwest of Manzanillo.  Cosme's deep convection
  held on despite the shear, and the storm managed to strengthen to its
  peak MSW of 45 kts, with an estimated central pressure of 1000 mb, at
  0300 UTC on 14 July about 500 nm west-southwest of Manzanillo.  

     Increased easterly shear, coupled with cooler SSTs along the storm
  track, quickly weakened Cosme.    The system was downgraded to a 
  depression at 1500 UTC on the 14th--the LLCC was exposed and nearly
  devoid of convection, while Quickscat data showed no tropical storm-
  force winds.  The depression lingered as it tracked west-northwestward;
  the possible benefits of slackening shear were offset by cool seas.
  As is often the case, Cosme's track slowed on the 15th and turned
  more westward under shallow flow.   The final advisory on Tropical
  Depression Cosme was issued at 2100 UTC on 15 July and placed the
  center some 800 nm west of Manzanillo; the remnant vortex dissipated
  while tracking slowly westward.

  C. Damage and Casualties

     No casualties or damage are known to have resulted from Cosme.

                      Hurricane Dalila  (TC-05E)
                             21 - 28 July

  A. Origins

     Dalila was spawned by the remnant tropical wave of Atlantic
  Tropical Depression Two, which itself was spawned by a tropical wave
  that was first noted in the eastern Atlantic on 9 July.  After TD-02's
  dissipation, the remnant tropical wave tracked uneventfully across the
  Caribbean, though it was admittedly more robust than most.    Deep
  convection erupted along the southern half of the wave axis beginning
  late on 18 July while it was crossing Central America; by 0600 UTC on
  the 19th a LOW had developed west of the isthmus.  The LOW's convection
  waxed and waned as it tracked roughly west-northwestward, paralleling
  the coast; T-numbers hovered around 1.0 through the 20th (a special
  thanks to Michael Pitt for sending me the pre-depression fix file for
  Dalila).   The LOW's organization finally increased enough to warrant
  its upgrade to Tropical Depression Five-E at 0300 UTC on 21 July while
  located roughly 270 nm south-southeast of Puerto Angel, Mexico.  The
  depression tracked to the west-northwest, south of a strong low- to
  mid-level ridge; this track persisted throughout its duration.

  B. Track and Intensity History

     Five-E developed in an environment of low shear and very warm SSTs;
  significant intensification was almost a given, and no one could rule
  out rapid strengthening.  At 1500 UTC on 21 July, the tropical cyclone
  was upgraded to Tropical Storm Dalila approximately 190 nm south of
  Puerto Angel, Mexico.    Its proximity to the coast, along with its
  forecast track, warranted the issuance of a tropical storm watch for
  the Mexican coast, extending from Acapulco to Puerto Angel.    At
  0300 UTC on the 22nd the Mexican government issued a tropical storm
  warning and hurricane watch for the coast, extending from Punta
  Maldonado to Lazaro Cardenas; the hurricane watch extended west of
  Lazaro Cardenas to Manzanillo, while the tropical storm watch east of
  Punta Maldonado was discontinued.  At 0900 UTC on the 22nd, all watches
  and warnings east of Acapulco were dropped, while the tropical storm
  warning was extended west of Acapulco to Punta San Telmo; a hurricane
  watch remained in effect from Acapulco to Manzanillo.  As the 22nd
  wore on, it became apparent that Dalila posed little threat to the
  coast; all watches and warnings were dropped at 0300 UTC on the 23rd
  as the storm passed south of Manzanillo on its way out to sea.

     While Dalila tracked offshore, the storm experienced a minor case
  of arrested development; the marked intensification that was initially
  forecast did not materialize.  Easterly shear interfered with Dalila on
  the 22nd, eroding outflow in its eastern semicircle and displacing the
  center northeast of the deepest convection.  The shear worsened on the
  23rd; the storm became ragged and distorted and weakened slightly.
  There was a turnaround on the 24th when the shear relaxed and allowed
  the storm to intensify.  At 0900 UTC on 24 July the system was upgraded
  to Hurricane Dalila about 240 nm west of Manzanillo.  It reached peak
  intensity on the next advisory, at 1500 UTC on 24 July, about 300 nm
  west of Manzanillo; the estimated CP was 984 mb with an associated MSW
  of 70 kts.  Dalila was a compact hurricane; the radii of tropical
  storm-force winds extended no farther than 60 nm from the center at
  its peak.  The hurricane soon began weakening as easterly shear again
  disrupted the circulation; indeed, a satellite pass on the 24th
  elicited some uncertainty on the estimate of Dalila's peak intensity.

     Dalila weakened to a tropical storm at 0300 UTC on the 25th while
  passing over Socorro Island.  Its forward motion decreased slightly
  beginning on the 25th, due to a trough's weakening the ridge to its
  north.  The ridge held fast, though, and the storm's west-northwesterly
  track continued; the dissipation of Erick's remnants helped strengthen
  the ridge.  The shear also lessened on the 25th, allowing Dalila to
  strengthen back to near-hurricane intensity on the 26th.  Even so,
  Dalila's track into cooler water offset most of the benefit of the
  reduced shear, and the storm weakened slowly once more; its slow
  track gave its intensity a reprieve.  The minor fluctuations in
  Dalila's intensity were almost mirrored by the storm's dramatic 
  convective "pulses", as easterly shear alternately increased and 
  decreased in a diurnal pattern.

     The storm's west-northwestward trek hastened on the 27th, and its
  deterioration began in earnest as it crossed unfavorably cool SSTs.
  Dalila's convection soon dispersed, and by the 28th the system was
  nearly devoid of deep convection.  The storm was downgraded to a
  depression at 0900 UTC on 28 July, and the final advisory was issued
  at 1500 UTC the same day, placing the dissipating center some 860 nm
  west of Mazatlan, Mexico.

  C. Damage and Casualties
     The AP reported that heavy rains from Dalila damaged 20 homes in 
  Acapulco on the 22nd.  The storm caused flash flooding that damaged
  dozens of homes on the Chiapas coast, along with minor flooding in the
  state of Guerrero.   No casualties are known as of this writing.

                    Tropical Storm Erick  (TC-04E)
                             20 - 24 July

  A. Origins

     Erick developed from a tropical wave, one that was first noted 
  east of the Lesser Antilles on 9 July.  The wave tracked uneventfully
  across the Caribbean and Central America and showed no sign of possible
  tropical cyclone formation until the 20th, when a tropical LOW formed.
  The LOW's organization increased sufficiently to warrant its upgrade to
  Tropical Depression Four-E at 2100 UTC on 20 July when located roughly
  800 nm west-southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico.  The depression tracked
  northwestward, following a weakness in the subtropical ridge.

  B. Track and Intensity History

     Though poorly-organized at first--due in part to some northerly 
  shear--the depression strengthened to Tropical Storm Erick at 2100 UTC
  on 21 July about 950 nm west of Manzanillo.   Minimal storm-strength
  was to be Erick's peak intensity, as the system was fast approaching
  cooler waters.  Erick maintained a 35-kt MSW for 42 hours; however, it
  didn't reach its minimum estimated CP of 1002 mb until 1500 UTC on
  22 July when located some 1100 nm west of Manzanillo.  Interestingly,
  the time of Erick's lowest CP coincided with a marked decrease in
  the storm's convection; Erick's large, well-organized circulation
  apparently took precedence in Dvorak analyses.   The storm's track
  turned more to the west-northwest late on the 22nd as low-level
  steering currents became dominant.

     Weakening commenced on the 23rd; Erick dropped below storm-strength
  at 1500 UTC while its forward speed decreased.  The final advisory on
  Tropical Depression Erick was issued at 0300 UTC on 24 July with the
  weakening center located about 1110 nm west of Manzanillo; by this time
  it was a convection-free whorl of low clouds.  Its impressive remnant
  circulation continued to generate 20-25 kt winds on the 24th, however,
  and lingered for some time thereafter.

  C. Damage and Casualties

     No casualties or damage are known to have resulted from Erick.


  NORTHWEST PACIFIC (NWP) - North Pacific Ocean West of Longitude 180

  Activity for July:  2 tropical depressions **
                      1 tropical storm
                      4 typhoons ++

  ** - One of these systems was treated as a tropical depression only
       by JTWC; the other only by JMA

  ++ - One of these was not treated as a typhoon by JMA, but was by
       JTWC, the National Meteorological Center of China, and the Hong
       Kong Observatory

  NOTE:  Most of the information on each cyclone's history presented in
  the narrative will be based upon JTWC's advisories, and references to
  winds should be understood as a 1-min avg MSW unless otherwise noted.
  However, in the accompanying tracking document I have made comparisons
  of coordinates with JMA (Japan) and the Philippines (PAGASA) when their
  positions differed from JTWC's by usually 40-50 nm or more.  A special
  thanks to Michael V. Padua, owner of the Typhoon 2000 website, for
  sending me the PAGASA and JMA tracks.

     Also, some information based upon warnings issued by the National
  Meteorological Center of China (NMCC) and the Hong Kong Observatory
  (HKO) is included.  The tracks from these agencies were sent to me
  by Huang Chunliang of Fuzhou City, China.     A special thanks to
  Chunliang for sending me these additional tracks.

     In the title line for each storm I plan to reference all the cyclone
  names/numbers I have available:    JTWC's depression number, the
  JMA-assigned name (if any), JMA's tropical storm numeric designator,
  and PAGASA's name for systems forming in or passing through their area
  of responsibility.

               Northwest Pacific Tropical Activity for July

     The month of July was quite active in the Northwest Pacific basin
  with a total of 7 tropical cyclones being tracked by the various
  warning centers.   Additionally, as the month opened, Tropical Storm
  Durian was located in the northern South China Sea.   The storm was
  upgraded to a typhoon on 1 July and subsequently crossed the northern
  Luichow Peninsula before traversing the Gulf of Tonkin and making a
  final landfall in southern China near the Laotian border.  (See the
  June summary for a complete report on Typhoon Durian.)

     Typhoons Utor and Yutu both formed east of the Philippines and
  followed similar tracks through the Luzon Strait, both eventually
  making landfall in southern China.   Typhoon Toraji and Tropical Storm
  Trami also formed east of the northern Philippines but followed north-
  westerly tracks which took them into eastern Taiwan.  Of the named
  cyclones, only Typhoon Kong-rey did not make landfall but instead
  recurved into the westerlies well southeast of Japan.    With the
  apparent exception of Typhoon Yutu, all the landfalling tropical
  cyclones resulted in fatalities.

     One weak, short-lived system was warned on briefly by JTWC only, and
  another system was carried as a tropical depression only by JMA.  (It
  should be noted that HKO and PAGASA have somewhat limited AORs and
  these two systems were well-outside their respective regions.   NMCC
  now issues warnings for the entire NWP basin, but normally only
  does so for systems that are at tropical storm intensity and higher.
  Warnings are sometimes issued for tropical depressions that are near
  the coast of China.)     Tropical Depression 08W was a short-lived,
  hybrid system that formed on 10 July about 525 nm southwest of Midway
  Island.  The depression moved eastward in an environment of strong
  vertical shear with the deep convection sheared well to the east of
  the exposed center.  The first JTWC warning at 10/1800 UTC indicated
  that the depression was already becoming extratropical, and the final
  warning was issued only 12 hours later.   Maximum winds were estimated
  at 25 kts.   A Tropical Weather Outlook issued by the Central Pacific
  Hurricane Center in Honolulu at 0200 UTC on 12 July remarked that the
  remnant LOW was located about 1000 miles west of Kauai and moving
  northeastward at 25 kts.

     Another system was classified as a tropical depression by JMA from
  16 to 19 July in their High Seas bulletins.  The system was centered
  approximately 450 nm east-northeast of Iwo Jima at 1200 UTC on the
  16th.  JTWC had given this disturbance a fair potential for development
  on the 15th, but downgraded the potential to poor on the 17th.  The
  LOW moved slowly and erratically through the 17th, then began to
  move off toward the east-northeast.  JMA elevated it to warning status
  (30-kt winds) at 18/0000 UTC when it was located about 675 nm northeast
  of Iwo Jima, but demoted it back to the summary portion of the bulletin
  at 1800 UTC.  The STWO issued by JTWC at 18/0600 UTC indicated that
  the disturbance was merging with an approaching shortwave trough and
  was no longer considered a suspect area for tropical cyclone formation.
  The final reference to the system by JMA was made at 1800 UTC on the
  19th, placing it far to the east of Japan.

                  Typhoon Utor  (TC-06W / TY 0104 / Feria)
                                 1 - 7 July

  Utor: contributed by the United States, is a Marshallese word
        meaning "squall line"

  A. Origins

     JTWC issued a STWO at 2100 UTC on 26 June which noted that an area
  of convection was developing about 490 nm south-southeast of Guam.
  Animated infrared imagery indicated that the area of unorganized
  convection had increased in areal coverage during the previous eight
  hours, and QuikScat data and a synoptic analysis indicated the
  existence of a broad LLCC situated in the monsoon trough.  CIMSS shear
  products indicated weak to moderate shear over the region with good
  diffluence enhancing the convection.  The disturbance remained quasi-
  stationary through 28 June with little change in organization.  At
  0000 UTC on the 29th JTWC upgraded the development potential to fair;
  areal coverage of the convection had increased over the past few hours,
  vertical shear was weakening and divergence aloft was improving.

     At 29/1200 UTC JTWC issued a TCFA for the disturbance; a synoptic
  analysis indicated falling pressures within the broad LLCC and water
  vapor imagery revealed good outflow in both semicircles of the system.
  However, the alert was cancelled at 1200 UTC on 30 June.    The
  disturbance had failed to organize further, and QuikScat and synoptic
  data suggested the likely existence of multiple LLCCs.  The disturbance
  was by this time tracking rapidly westward and the development
  potential was downgraded to fair.     By 30/2200 UTC the system was
  located roughly 85 nm south of Yap, and animated satellite imagery
  indicated that deep convection was beginning to organize around the
  broad LLCC.   The minimum SLP was estimated at 998 mb, and JTWC issued
  a second TCFA at this time.

     JTWC issued the first warning on TD-06W at 0600 UTC on 1 July.  The
  depression was centered about 170 nm east of Palau, drifting slowly
  northward.  The system continued to drift slowly toward the north and
  at 0000 UTC on 2 July, both JTWC and JMA upgraded the depression to
  tropical storm status with JMA assigning the name Utor.  Tropical Storm
  Utor was then centered approximately 85 nm northwest of Yap and its
  northward motion had accelerated to 19 kts.    At 0600 UTC the storm
  entered PAGASA's AOR and was named Feria (a Spanish word meaning "fair"
  or "market").

  B. Track and Intensity History

     Initially Utor was steered northward by a peripheral ridge to the
  east of the system.  About the time that it was upgraded to a tropical
  storm, the cyclone began to move on a fairly straight northwesterly
  track.  Tropical Storm Utor/Feria steadily intensified and was upgraded
  to a typhoon by both JTWC and JMA at 0600 UTC on 3 July while located
  about 480 nm southeast of Port San Vicente on Luzon.   A TRMM pass
  (37 GHz) at 03/0609 UTC depicted a deep convective banding feature
  extending over the southern semicircle.   A SSM/I pass at 1138 UTC
  indicated that the intense convection was still confined to the
  southern half of the typhoon.  Upper-level easterlies associated with
  a HIGH east of Taiwan were hampering the development of banding over
  the northern semicircle.

     The shear lessened and by 04/0600 UTC convective bands were
  developing over the northern half of the storm.  It was at this time
  that Typhoon Utor/Feria reached its peak estimated intensity of 80 kts
  (per JTWC's warnings).  As it approached Luzon a mid-level HIGH south
  of Japan ridged westward and caused the typhoon to turn to a course
  just north of due west.  This brought Utor/Feria's center very close
  to northern Luzon.  At 0600 UTC on the 4th, when the storm reached its
  peak intensity, it was centered only about 30 nm north of Port San

     After passing Luzon, Typhoon Utor turned back to a more west-
  northwesterly track and began to slowly weaken.  The storm made land-
  fall in southeastern China around 0000 UTC on 6 July about 40 nm
  (75 km) east of Hong Kong as a minimal typhoon.   Utor continued to
  track west-northwestward into China and quickly weakened.  JTWC issued
  their final warning at 06/1800 UTC with the center well inland.  The
  central convection had dissipated, although a strong convective band
  still lingered along the Chinese coast.

  C. Meteorological Aspects

     At its peak Utor was a large typhoon.  Winds of 50 kts extended
  outward 130 nm to the northeast of the center and 50 nm to the south-
  west.  Gales covered an area almost 500 nm in diameter.  By the time
  of landfall the storm had weakened to minimal typhoon intensity and
  was a bit smaller in areal extent:  50-kt winds reached out 50 nm from
  the center with the diameter of the gale area about 400 nm.   The
  estimated peak intensity (per JTWC) of 80 kts occurred from 0600
  through 1800 UTC on 4 July.  The minimum estimated central pressure
  (from JMA's bulletins) was 960 mb.

     Patrick Hoareau sent me some observations from several locations
  in the Philippines he'd gleaned from various websites.    Aparri, on
  the north coast of Luzon (18.4N, 121.6E), reported a pressure of 967 mb
  and northerly winds of 38 kts at 0500 UTC on 4 July.   Laoag (18.2N,
  120.5E) in northwestern Luzon reported 978 mb and winds of 33 kts from
  the north-northwest at the same time.   At 0300 UTC Dagupan (16.0N,
  120.3E) reported 988 mb and westerly winds of 35 kts.

     Calayan Island (19.3N, 121.5E) was in the eye of Typhoon Utor/Feria
  at 04/0900 UTC and reported a minimum pressure of 967 mb with east-
  southeasterly winds of 19 kts.   At 1000 UTC Laoag reported a pressure
  of 966 mb with 31-kt northwesterly winds.   Michael V. Padua in Naga
  City reports that the lowest pressure he observed at that location was
  993.9 mb at 04/0600 UTC.   Peak wind gusts were 41 kts; the rainfall
  was light during the strongest winds but became heavy after the winds
  had calmed down.  (A special thanks to Patrick and Michael for passing
  these observations along.)

     Baguio City, a popular mountain resort on Luzon, set a new 24-hour
  rainfall record during Typhoon Utor/Feria.   On 4 July, 1085.8 mm of
  rain was measured, exceeding the 994.6 mm recording during Typhoon
  Zeb/Iliang in 1998.  The July monthly average for the station is
  1074 mm.

     Huang Chunliang sent me the link to a very nice and informative
  report on Typhoon Utor prepared by the Hong Kong Observatory.  The URL
  for the report is:>.
  (A special thanks to Chunliang for sending me the link to the report.)
  The following information is taken from this report.

     The lowest pressures observed in the Hong Kong area during Utor's
  passage were 980.6 mb at HKO at 05/2121 UTC and 978.6 mb at Waglan
  Island at 05/2116 UTC.  Most areas around Hong Kong received in excess
  of 150 mm of rainfall from Typhoon Utor.  Tung Chung measured 308 mm
  for a storm total with 276 mm falling on 6 July.  The highest sea
  levels observed during Utor's passage were 3.6 m at Tsim Bei Tsui and
  3.4 m at Quarry Bay.    The reading at Quarry Bay was the highest
  recorded in Victoria Bay since Typhoon Wanda in 1962.

     Following are some of the stronger wind observations gleaned from
  the HKO report:

  Location          Date/Time    Hourly Sustained    Peak Gusts Last Hour
                        (UTC)    (10-min avg kts)           (kts)

  Central Plaza       06/1200       S    45                   71
  Chek Lap Kok        06/1600       S    41                   66
  Cheung Chau         06/1600       S    46                   64
  Green Island        06/1600       WSW  45                   70
  Lau Fau Shan        06/0100       WNW  35                   63
  Tai Mo Shan         06/1200       SSW  42                   67
  Tsing Yi            06/1600       SSE  39                   64

  D. Comparisons Between JTWC and Other Centers

     Center position coordinates in general were in fairly good agree-
  ment throughout the life of Utor.   JMA's intensity estimates also
  agreed rather well with those reported by JTWC.  JMA's peak 10-min
  mean MSW was 75 kts, which correlates very well with JTWC's peak MSW
  estimate of 80 kts.  PAGASA's peak 10-min mean MSW was also 75 kts,
  while NMCC and HKO were slightly lower at 70 kts.    JTWC, JMA, and
  PAGASA all upgraded Utor to typhoon status at 03/0600 UTC, and NMCC
  did so six hours later.   The storm was already a typhoon when it
  entered HKO's AOR.

  E. Damage and Casualties

     Typhoon Utor left a vast trail of death and destruction from the
  Philippines to China.   Even though the center of Utor/Feria remained
  offshore of northern Luzon, the large circulation channeled in huge
  amounts of moist tropical air which led to extremely heavy rainfall.
  The typhoon was responsible for at least 168 deaths in the Philippines
  with 180 injured and 60 missing.    The hardest hit provinces were
  Apayao, Cagayan and Benguet.   Over 28,000 houses were destroyed and
  more than 12,000 partially damaged.  Many major highways were closed
  due to landslides, floods and fallen trees--at least 17 landslides were
  reported.  Over 1 million persons were displaced by the storm, and the
  total damage in the country to property and agriculture was estimated
  at 1.8 billion pesos (US $37 million).

     In Taiwan two persons were reported killed with six injured.  The
  storm's outer rainbands brought torrential rains and strong winds to
  the island--agricultural losses were estimated at NT $68 million.  A
  Taiwanese fishing boat, the Shan-Yu-Shing, with two Taiwanese and
  five Chinese crewmen on board was reported missing.  In the Hong Kong
  area gales and strong winds toppled trees and blew down scaffolding in
  many places.  One person was injured, and a barge sank in high seas off
  Tuen Mun but the crew was rescued.

     Although the death toll was much lower than in the Philippines, the
  greatest devastation was wrought in southern China.    Typhoon Utor
  followed so closely on the heels of Typhoon Durian that it is nigh
  impossible to separate the effects of the flooding spawned by the
  two storms' heavy rains.      Between 2 and 8 July the two typhoons
  brought incredibly heavy rainfall to Guangdong Province and the Guangxi
  Autonomous Region with as much as 4.2 metres recorded in some locales.
  Heavy rains in eastern Guangdong Province brought rivers to their
  highest levels in years, inundating buildings and power installations
  in Meizhou and Huizhou Cities.    Near Chaozhou City power and water
  supplies were cut off, 15 fishing vessels were sunk, and 30,000
  hectares of crops were destroyed.  In the Guangxi Autonomous Region
  torrential rain brought severe flooding to the capital city of Nanning
  where the Yongjiang River rose to 5.4 metres above the danger level--
  the highest in 50 years.

     In Guangdong Province 23 persons were reported killed with 1448
  injured.  Over 22,150 homes were destroyed with 102,810 more damaged.
  Around 558,000 hectares of farmland were adversely affected by the
  flooding, and the direct economic losses to this province are estimated
  at 6.7 billion yuan (US $813 million).   In the Guangxi area, the death
  toll stands at 10 with 6850 persons injured.   More than 82,000 houses
  were destroyed and approximately 423,000 damaged.   The amount of crop-
  lands affected was placed at 669,500 hectares with crops lost
  completely on 210,200 hectares.  The total economic losses in Guangxi
  are estimated at 16 billion yuan (US $1.93 billion).

     (The information on damage and casualties came from many sources.
  Patrick Hoareau, Huang Chunliang, and Michael V. Padua all sent tidbits
  of information, plus a significant amount was found on the website for
  disaster relief:>.)

              Tropical Storm Trami  (TC-07W / TS 0105 / Gorio)
                                 8 - 12 July

  Trami: contributed by Vietnam, is a kind of tree belonging to the
         rose family.  Its flowers are pink or red without a fragrance
         and is used as a decorative tree.

  A. Origins

     A STWO, issued by JTWC at 0323 UTC on 7 July, mentioned that an area
  of convection was developing about 120 nm northwest of Chuuk--animated
  infrared imagery indicated cycling deep convection north of a possible
  LLCC.      Water vapor imagery indicated diffluent upper-level north-
  easterly winds across the region and a TUTT cell to the northwest that
  was enhancing outflow.  A SSM/I (85 GHz) pass at 03/2342 UTC depicted
  poorly-defined low-level cloud lines attempting to close off a LLCC,
  while animated satellite imagery revealed a significant decrease in
  cloud coverage during the past 10 hours.  JTWC upgraded the development
  potential to fair at 05/0000 UTC, and at 0600 UTC the disturbance was
  centered about 380 nm south-southeast of Guam.  SSM/I data indicated a
  broad LLCC with little associated deep convection.

     Twenty-four hours later the system was located approximately 290 nm
  east of Yap.  A QuikScat pass depicted a broad, unorganized region
  of turning in the clouds about a weak LLCC.   By 0600 UTC on the 7th,
  the disturbance was located just northwest of Yap.  Recent bursts of
  deep convection near the center had been observed, but the system was
  still rather disorganized; however, a 200-mb analysis indicated that
  the LLCC was in a more favorable environment for strengthening.  JTWC
  issued a TCFA at 08/0100 UTC with the area located about 250 nm east
  of the Philippines.  Animated visible and infrared imagery indicated
  deep convection developing over the LLCC, and a 07/2134 UTC SSM/I pass
  revealed curved bands of convection along the western semicircle.

     A second TCFA was issued at 08/2200 UTC with the disturbance placed
  northwest of the previous TCFA position.  Organization was improving,
  and a TRMM pass at 08/1302 UTC had indicated a nearly closed convective
  ring around the system's center.    Also, a 200-mb analysis indicated
  that the LLCC was moving beneath an extension of an upper-level ridge
  with improved outflow.      PAGASA issued the first warning on the
  incipient system at 1800 UTC, naming it Tropical Depression Gorio (a
  Filipino nickname).  JTWC initiated warnings on TD-07W at 09/0000 UTC
  with the depression centered approximately 300 nm east-southeast of the
  northeastern tip of Luzon.  JMA upgraded the system to Tropical Storm
  Trami at 10/0000 UTC--by this time the cyclone's center was located
  about 230 nm east-southeast of the southern tip of Taiwan.  JTWC and
  PAGASA also upgraded the depression to a tropical storm at 0000 UTC,
  while NMCC did so at 0600 UTC on the 10th.

  B. Track and Intensity History

     When Trami/Gorio was upgraded to a tropical storm at 10/0000 UTC,
  its center was well-defined but partly-exposed about 40 nm east of
  the deep convection.  Outflow was fair south of the center.
  Initially the storm was guided north-northwestward by a peripheral
  ridge to its southeast; later it moved into a weakness in the sub-
  tropical ridge.   Persistent northeasterly shear throughout its life
  prevented Trami from strengthening significantly by forcing the deep
  convection to the southwest of the center.

     Based upon JTWC's tracking information, the weak tropical storm
  moved north-northwestward into the eastern coast of Taiwan.    At
  1200 UTC on 11 July the minimal tropical storm was centered about
  140 nm south-southeast of Taipei.  The storm crossed Taiwan and moved
  into the Taiwan Strait, weakening as it crossed the mountainous island.
  JTWC and NMCC issued the final warnings on Trami at 12/0600 UTC.  No
  LLCC was discernible in visible and enhanced infrared imagery.  The
  peak MSW estimated by JTWC was only 35 kts, although some of the other
  warning centers estimated the winds to be a little higher.  The lowest
  central pressure estimated by JMA was 992 mb.

  C. Comparisons Between JTWC and Other Centers

     As would be expected with a weak, rather nebulous system, there was
  quite a bit of divergence in the center position estimates between the
  various warning agencies.  As Trami approached Taiwan JMA's coordinates
  consistently seemed to lie west of those from JTWC.    Regarding
  intensity, JTWC and NMCC kept Trami at minimal tropical storm intensity
  (although NMCC's 35-kt MSW represents a 10-min avg).   JMA and PAGASA,
  however, reported the maximum 10-min avg wind at 45 kts at 10/1800 and
  11/0000 UTC, and HKO's estimated 10-min avg MSW was 40 kts during this
  time.  These values correlate to a 1-min avg MSW of around 45-50 kts
  and represent a somewhat stronger tropical cyclone than indicated by
  JTWC and NMCC.

  D. Damage and Casualties

     While Trami's winds were not severe, the storm brought some of the
  heaviest rainfall in 40 years to Kaohsiung and Pingtung Counties.  The
  resulting floods were responsible for five deaths in southern Kaohsiung
  County.     Kaohsiung City was flooded; streets were clogged with
  abandoned cars, and more than 100,000 homes were without electrical

                  Typhoon Kong-rey  (TC-09W / TY 0106)
                           21 July - 1 August

  Kong-rey: contributed by Cambodia, is the name of a pretty girl in
            a Khmer legend; also the name of a mountain

  A. Origins

     JTWC issued a STWO at 0000 UTC on 21 July which noted that an area
  of convection had developed about 560 nm northeast of Saipan.  Animated
  visible imagery indicated persistent convection associated with a LLCC.
  A SSM/I image taken at 20/2020 UTC had revealed a weak LLCC with a
  small band of convection located to the south.   A TCFA was issued
  three hours later with deep convection developing rapidly around the
  LLCC.  A 200-mb analysis indicated that the disturbance was located
  within a favorable environment below a small, upper-level anticyclone.

     The first warning on TD-09W was issued by JTWC at 21/0600 UTC as
  convection continued to consolidate around the center, and the system
  was upgraded to a tropical storm at 1800 UTC when located about 540 nm
  east of Iwo Jima, moving slowly north-northwestward.   JMA upgraded
  the system to Tropical Storm Kong-rey at 22/0000 UTC, and NMCC followed
  suit six hours later.

  B. Track and Intensity History

     Kong-rey was initially steered westward by a mid-level ridge east
  of Japan.  JTWC upgraded the storm to typhoon status at 1200 UTC on
  the 23rd when the center was located about 260 nm east of Iwo Jima.
  (NMCC and JTWC were the only other agencies issuing warnings for
  Kong-rey, and they didn't upgrade the storm until the 25th.)  By the
  24th the steering ridge had gradually shifted eastward in response to
  a mid-latitude trough digging southward over the Sea of Japan and
  extending southwestward to Taiwan.   Typhoon Kong-rey began to move
  more to the west-northwest, passing about 130 nm north of Iwo Jima
  with 75-kt winds around 24/1800 UTC, and as the ridge strengthened on
  the 25th, the storm recurved sharply to the north-northeast.  The
  point of recurvature was about 200 nm north-northwest of Iwo Jima,
  and the typhoon reached an initial peak intensity of 85 kts about this

     After recurvature, the above-mentioned mid-latitude trough over
  Japan helped to create a steering pattern in conjunction with the
  ridge, and Kong-rey moved rather smoothly off to the northeast.  The
  intensity had dropped down to 75 kts (per JTWC) by 26/0000 UTC, and
  the JTWC warning noted that extratropical transition was beginning to
  occur.   The warnings at 0600 and 1200 UTC also made the remark that
  Kong-rey was becoming extratropical--it was noted that convection was
  weakening.  However, at 26/1800 UTC the MSW was bumped back up to
  85 kts and the warning noted that a small eye had redeveloped.  This
  second peak in intensity was reached when Kong-rey was located about
  360 nm north-northeast of Iwo Jima.   This second lease on life was
  short-lived, however, and by 1200 UTC on 27 July the winds were back
  down to 75 kts.    Animated satellite imagery depicted weakening
  convection and increasing shear.  (It should be noted that the 10-min
  avg MSW estimates from NMCC and JMA do not show a double peak in

     JTWC downgraded Kong-rey to a 55-kt tropical storm at 0000 UTC on
  28 July, and issued their final warning six hours later when the storm
  was centered about 700 nm northeast of Iwo Jima.  Winds were estimated
  at 50 kts, but JTWC assessed the system to be more or less extra-
  tropical.  JMA and NMCC, however, continued to classify Kong-rey as a
  tropical storm through 0600 UTC on the 29th.  JMA deemed the storm to
  be extratropical by 1200 UTC.  The extratropical remains of Kong-rey
  tracked northeastward through the 31st, then began to turn northward
  just west of the Dateline.  By 0000 UTC on 1 August the system was a
  weakening gale near the southwestern Aleutian Islands.

  C. Meteorological Aspects

     Early in its life Kong-rey was a rather small tropical cyclone.  A
  QuikScat pass shortly before 1200 UTC on 22 July failed to resolve a
  radius of maximum winds but did indicate a small field of 35-kt winds.
  The concurrent JTWC warning estimated the MSW at 50 kts with the
  maximum radius of gales 50 nm to the northeast and northwest of the
  center and 35 nm elsewhere.  At the time JTWC upgraded Kong-rey to a
  typhoon (1200 UTC on 23 July), CI numbers were 55 and 65 kts.   The
  storm displayed intense convection with an embedded LLCC.    A 23/0302
  UTC TRMM pass revealed a 30-nm diameter eye feature with deep
  convection in the eastern semicircle.

     By 24/1800 UTC the CDO was expanding in areal extent, and a 25/0211
  UTC TRMM pass depicted tightly-curved banding with a banding eye.  Good
  outflow was observed in all quadrants, enhanced by mid-latitude
  westerlies to the north of the cyclone and an upper-level LOW to the
  southeast.  NMCC and JMA upgraded Kong-rey to typhoon status at 0600
  and 1200 UTC, respectively.  At the time of its peak intensity (26/1800
  UTC) of 85 kts, Kong-rey was a somewhat smaller than average typhoon.
  Winds of 50 kts extended outward 110 nm to the southeast and 35 nm to
  the northwest while gales reached out 140 nm southeast of the center
  and 90 nm to the northwest.  The minimum estimated central pressure
  (per JMA's bulletins) was 955 mb.

  D. Comparisons Between JTWC and Other Centers

     Center position coordinates were in excellent agreement between JMA,
  JTWC, and NMCC for Typhoon Kong-rey.  Early in the storm's history,
  the intensity estimates reported by JTWC and JMA were in good agreement
  while NMCC's values were a little lower on 22 and 23 July.  The most
  glaring disagreement was from the 23rd to the 25th when JTWC upgraded
  Kong-rey to a typhoon while the other centers' 10-min avg MSW values
  were 45 and 40 kts.  For about a 30-hour period, JTWC's 1-min avg MSW
  was 75 kts while JMA's 10-min mean MSW was 55 kts and NMCC's was 50
  kts, increasing to 60 kts.  However, once the other TCWCs had upgraded
  Kong-rey to typhoon status, their peak 10-min avg MSW value of 70 kts
  agrees rather closely with JTWC's peak MSW estimate of 85 kts.  As
  noted above, the intensities from JMA and NMCC do not show a double
  peak as does JTWC's.   JMA and NMCC continued to classify Kong-rey as
  a tropical storm for another 24 hours after JTWC had classified the
  storm as extratropical and issued their final warning.

  E. Damage and Casualties

     The author has learned of no damage or casualties resulting from
  Typhoon Kong-rey.

                Typhoon Yutu  (TC-10W / STS 0107 / Huaning)
                               22 - 26 July

  Yutu: contributed by China, is the name of the Jade Hare, who, in an
        ancient Chinese legend, fled to the moon with the wife of a
        tribal chief in ancient China after she had stolen her husband's
        elixir of immortality.  The two are said to still be living on
        the moon in a palace.

  A. Origins

     A STWO issued at 0000 UTC on 21 July remarked that an area of
  convection had developed about 480 nm northwest of Guam.  Animated
  visible imagery indicated persistent but unorganized convection, and
  a QuikScat pass depicted a broad, weak LLCC.  The system continued to
  move westward--by 22/0600 UTC it was located approximately 400 nm east
  of Luzon.  A 200-mb analysis indicated moderate northeasterlies over
  the region.    JTWC upgraded the development potential to fair at
  1200 UTC; animated visible imagery indicated persistent convection and
  the possibility of multiple LLCCs within a large monsoon gyre.   A
  TCFA was issued at 22/1730 UTC, locating the LLCC approximately 275 nm
  east of Port San Vicente on Luzon.     Deep convection continued to
  organize around the center and the first warning was issued on TD-10W
  at 1800 UTC.  The depression was centered about 210 nm east of Port
  San Vicente and was moving west-northwestward at 9 kts.

     NMCC was the first to upgrade the incipient cyclone to tropical
  storm status--that occurred at 0600 UTC on the 23rd.    PAGASA began
  issuing warnings on the system also at 0600 UTC, naming the disturbance
  Tropical Depression Huaning (a Filipino nickname).   JTWC (along with
  PAGASA and HKO) upgraded the depression to a tropical storm at 1200 UTC
  with the center located roughly 110 nm south-southeast of the southern
  tip of Taiwan.     Six hours later, at 1200 UTC, JMA classified the
  system as Tropical Storm Yutu.

  B. Track and Intensity History

     A mid-level ridge to the northeast of the storm steered Yutu on a
  fairly straight westerly track throughout its life.   Tropical Storm
  Yutu/Huaning remained fairly weak as it trekked westward through the
  Luzon Strait, passing roughly halfway between Luzon and Taiwan.  At
  24/0000 UTC JTWC estimated the MSW at 45 kts--the center was partly-
  exposed with convection sheared to the west of the LLCC.  However,
  by 0600 UTC Yutu had undergone a rapid intensification.  A 24/0456
  UTC TRMM pass depicted tightly-wrapped convective banding around a
  33-nm round eye.  Water vapor imagery revealed that the storm had
  excellent outflow over the southern semicircle and improving outflow
  to the north.  JTWC abruptly upgraded Yutu to a 70-kt typhoon; NMCC
  also upgraded the storm to a typhoon at 0600 UTC and HKO followed suit
  six hours later.  JMA, however, never upgraded Yutu to typhoon status.
  (The storm was already west of PAGASA's AOR by the time it reached
  typhoon intensity.)  Yutu was centered about 180 nm east-southeast of
  Hong Kong when JTWC classified it as a typhoon.

     A 24/1018 UTC SSM/I pass revealed that the eyewall convection had
  consolidated.  JTWC upped the MSW to the peak value of 85 kts at 1200
  UTC.  Typhoon Yutu passed about 100 nm due south of Hong Kong shortly
  before 1800 UTC on 24 June.   The storm continued on its westerly track
  and made landfall around 1900 UTC on 25 July about 55 km east of
  Zhanjiang in the county of Dianbai in China's Guangdong Province.  This
  location is about 170 nm (310 km) southwest of Hong Kong.   Yutu had
  weakened slightly before making landfall; JTWC estimated the MSW at
  75 kts at 1800 UTC--shortly before landfall.   Once inland the storm
  quickly weakened and had essentially dissipated by 1800 UTC on 26 July.

  C. Meteorological Aspects

     Typhoon Yutu's peak intensity (per JTWC) was 85 kts from 1200 UTC
  on the 24th through 0600 UTC on the 25th.     The minimum estimated
  central pressure (per JMA's bulletins) was 970 mb.  At the time of
  Yutu's peak intensity, the radius of 50-kt winds was 40 nm while gales
  covered an area a little over 200 nm in diameter.

     Patrick Hoareau sent me some observations he'd obtained from
  various websites.     The eye of Yutu passed near Dongsha Dao (20.7N,
  116.7E) just before 24/0600 UTC.  At 0900 UTC the station reported
  an easterly wind of 38 kts with a pressure of 984 mb.   Shangchuan
  Dao (21.7N, 112.8E) at 24/0400 UTC reported a pressure of 999 mb
  and north-northeasterly winds of 27 kts.  The pressure was slowly
  falling and Yutu's center passed about 75 nm to the south-southeast
  at 0600 UTC.   Xuwen County in Guangdong Province recorded 260 mm of
  rain in the 24 hours ending at 26/1800 UTC.   According to information
  sent to me by Huang Chunliang, the sustained winds (10-min avg) at
  landfall were 64 kts, gusting to 82 kts.  (I'm not sure if these were
  measured winds or based upon estimates given in warnings.)  Fuzhou
  City, far from Yutu's track, recorded 67.2 mm of rain indirectly
  associated with the storm.

     Chunliang also sent me the link to a report on Typhoon Yutu prepared
  by the Hong Kong Observatory.    The URL for the report is:>.  The following
  information was taken from the report.

     The lowest pressure measured was 999.8 mb at Waglan Island at
  2013 UTC on 24 July.  All the four-day storm rainfall totals were
  under 100 mm except for Tai Mo Shan, which recorded 130 mm.  Some
  of the stronger wind observations given in the report follow:

  Location          Date/Time    Hourly Sustained    Peak Gusts Last Hour
                        (UTC)    (10-min avg kts)           (kts)

  Central Plaza       25/0300       E    35                   57
  Cheung Chau         25/0900       ESE  37                   63
  Tai Mo Shan         25/0400       SE   43                   61
  Tate's Cairn        24/2000       E    34                   61
  Waglan Island       24/2200       E    37                   49

  D. Comparisons Between JTWC and Other Agencies

     Center position coordinates were in excellent agreement between the
  various warning agencies for Typhoon Yutu.   While JMA upgraded the
  system to a tropical storm only six hours after JTWC and the intensity
  estimates agreed well at that point, JMA never upgraded Yutu to typhoon
  status--the peak 10-min avg MSW never got higher than 60 kts (which
  correlates roughly to a 70-kt 1-min avg MSW).     JTWC's intensity
  estimates were already decreasing when JMA's values reached their
  peak.  JMA's 10-min mean MSW was 50 kts at the time of JTWC's estimated
  peak intensity of 85 kts--a considerable difference.   NMCC and HKO
  both upgraded Yutu to typhoon status, however.  NMCC's peak 10-min avg
  MSW was 65 kts, but HKO's peak was 80 kts, in close agreement with

  E. Damage and Casualties

     While Typhoon Yutu affected some of the same areas in China
  devastated by Typhoons Durian and Utor, the storm was not nearly as
  destructive as the earlier storms.  In Guangdong Province 4650 houses
  were wrecked by Yutu.  The total loss sustained by the cities of
  Maoming, Yangjiang and Zhanjiang is estimated at 700 million yuan.
  In the Hong Kong area ten persons sustained injuries due to the storm.
  The author has not learned of any fatalities attributed to Typhoon

                Typhoon Toraji  (TC-11W / TY 0108 / Isang)
                                25 - 31 July

  Toraji: contributed by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
          (North Korea), is the name of a flower (broad bell flower)

  A. Origins

     JTWC issued a STWO at 24/0600 UTC which noted that an area of
  convection had developed approximately 310 nm west of Guam.  A
  23/2355 UTC SSM/I pass had depicted persistent but isolated deep
  convection near a broad LLCC embedded in the monsoon trough.  A
  CIMSS analysis indicated light to moderate vertical shear over the
  region.  By 25/0600 UTC the disturbance was located about 390 nm
  north of Koror; animated visible and infrared imagery depicted
  improving organization and a 24/2111 UTC SSM/I pass revealed a
  possible LLCC on the eastern periphery of a mid-level circulation.

     A TCFA was issued at 1700 UTC on the 25th.    Organization had
  improved significantly during the previous few hours with a possible
  banding feature developing over the northwest quadrant.  A SSM/I
  pass indicated that a LLCC was tucked beneath the extreme eastern
  edge of the deep convection, and a 25/0851 UTC QuikScat pass showed
  the strongest winds to be located southwest of the LLCC.  JTWC issued
  the first warning on TD-11W at 25/1800 UTC with the center located
  approximately 650 nm east-southeast of the northeastern tip of Luzon.
  PAGASA initiated warnings on the depression at 26/0000 UTC, naming
  it Isang (a Filipino nickname).    By 0600 UTC Tropical Depression
  Isang/11W was tracking north-northwestward at 9 kts with a partially-
  exposed center located beneath the eastern edge of the deep convection.

     The depression was slow to intensify due to some easterly shear.
  Shortly after issuing the fifth warning at 26/1800 UTC, JTWC released
  an amended warning, relocating the center 90 nm to the southwest of the
  previous warning position and upgrading the system to a tropical storm.
  PAGASA also upgraded Isang to tropical storm status.    Tropical Storm
  Isang/11W was centered about 350 nm east-southeast of northeastern
  Luzon at this time.    NMCC and JMA classified the system as a tropical
  storm at 27/0000 UTC with JMA assigning the name Toraji.

  B. Track and Intensity History

     JTWC increased the MSW to 40 kts at 27/0000 UTC--a CDO 60 nm in
  diameter was located over the center of the vortex.   Toraji/Isang
  steadily intensified, and at 1800 UTC on the 27th JTWC, JMA, and PAGASA
  all upgraded the storm to typhoon intensity with the center located
  approximately 375 nm southeast of the southern tip of Taiwan.  The
  storm had entered HKO's AOR by 28/0000 UTC and the first warning from
  that agency classified Toraji as a typhoon.  NMCC was the last TCWC to
  upgrade the storm to typhoon status; that happened at 28/0600 UTC.

     Toraji formed in a weakness in the subtropical ridge.  Initially
  the cyclone moved westward, then followed a general northwesterly to
  north-northwesterly track along the periphery of a mid-level ridge
  located to the east-northeast.  The MSW had reached 90 kts (per JTWC)
  by 28/0600 UTC and remained pegged there until Toraji was nearing
  the east coast of Taiwan around 1200 UTC on the 29th.  JTWC upped the
  winds to 95 kts at that time, and at 1800 UTC, just as the center was
  making landfall about 85 nm (155 km) south of Taipei, estimated the
  MSW at 100 kts--the peak for the storm's history.  The minimum central
  pressure reported by JMA was 960 mb.

     Typhoon Toraji tracked on across Taiwan and had moved out into the
  Taiwan Strait by 0600 UTC on 30 July.  JTWC was still maintaining the
  storm at typhoon intensity but the other warning centers had downgraded
  Toraji to a tropical storm.  JTWC downgraded Toraji to a 55-kt tropical
  storm at 1800 UTC when it was centered about 100 nm west-northwest of
  Taipei.  The cyclone made its final landfall near Lianjiang (near
  Fuzhou City) around 30/1930 UTC--very near where Typhoon Chebi had
  made landfall in late June.  The intensity at landfall (per JTWC) was
  55 kts with gusts to 70 kts.   The weakening storm continued to move
  northward through eastern China.  By 31/0000 UTC the center was located
  roughly 90 km north-northeast of Fuzhou City.  The final warning from
  JTWC, at 31/1200 UTC, downgraded Toraji to a depression and placed the
  system inland about 370 km south-southwest of Shanghai.

  C. Meteorological Aspects

     As mentioned earlier, the peak MSW of 100 kts as estimated by JTWC
  occurred at 1800 UTC on 29 July when the center had just made landfall
  in eastern Taiwan.  Winds to 50 kts extended to the east 85 nm over
  water, and gales covered an area approximately 300 nm in diameter.

     Roger Edson sent an e-mail with two attached TRMM pictures made at
  0205 UTC on 29 July--one in the 85 GHz band and the other a visible
  shot.  The microwave image showed the eye wall becoming much more
  circular and uniformly more vigorous.    In Roger's opinion the
  intensity of Toraji at that point was near 100 kts.

     I received no surface wind and pressure observations from the areas
  where Typhoon Toraji made landfall.  Huang Chunliang sent me some press
  reports on the effects of the typhoon in Taiwan and near Fuzhou City
  which included a few rainfall amounts.   In Taiwan, Fenglin measured
  556 mm of rain within a 35-hour period ending at 0300 UTC on 30 July.
  Also, Hsiaokuanshan reported 686 mm, presumably during the same period.
  While Toraji made a final landfall in China near Lianjiang in the
  county of Fuzhou, Chunliang reports that the winds never exceeded gale
  force in Fuzhou City.   Heavy rains fell, however, with 6 mm falling
  within a 5-minute period in the urban area of Fuzhou.

  D. Comparisons Between JTWC and Other Centers

     As was the case with the previous two typhoons, center position
  coordinates were in excellent agreement between the several warning
  centers.   And during the early tropical storm stage, the intensity
  estimates from the various agencies agreed fairly well.  During the
  time Toraji's intensity was plateaued at 90 kts for about a day and
  a half while the storm was approaching Taiwan, JMA and PAGASA estimated
  the 10-min avg MSW at 75 kts which correlates to a 1-min MSW of about
  85 kts; NMCC and HKO were a little lower at 70 kts.     The most
  significant disagreement was at 29/1800 UTC when JTWC upped the MSW to
  100 kts.      PAGASA, HKO and NMCC did not increase their intensity
  estimates, and JMA downgraded the typhoon to a 60-kt tropical storm at
  that time.    However, all the Asian TCWCs had downgraded Toraji to
  tropical storm intensity by 30/0600 UTC whereas JTWC maintained the
  system as a 75-kt typhoon through 1200 UTC.   NMCC and HKO, along with
  JTWC, maintained Toraji as a fairly strong tropical storm until
  landfall in China while JMA had lowered the winds to minimal tropical
  storm intensity by the time the center reached the coast.

  E. Damage and Casualties

     An article from the Taipei Times which I located on the internet
  seems to give the definitive figures for Typhoon Toraji's effects in
  Taiwan.  The death toll was at least 35 with 108 persons still missing
  at the time of the report a couple of days after the storm had struck.
  Most of the deaths appeared to be due to landslides triggered by the
  heavy rainfall.  Over 340,000 people were without electricity, and
  the losses to agriculture and forestry were estimated at NT $700


  NORTH INDIAN OCEAN (NIO) - Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea

  Activity for July:  No tropical cyclones


  SOUTHWEST INDIAN OCEAN (SWI) - South Indian Ocean West of Longitude 90E

  Activity for July:  No tropical cyclones



  Activity for July:  No tropical cyclones


  Activity for July:  No tropical cyclones

                      Northeast Australia/Coral Sea
                       Tropical Activity for July

     In mid-July I received an e-mail from Jeff Callaghan detailing a
  severe hybrid-type storm whose heavy seas wrought havoc along the
  Queensland and New South Wales coastlines.  The LOW originally formed
  to the south of Noumea, New Caledonia, equatorward of a large blocking
  HIGH over New Zealand as an upper-level trough crossed the Tasman Sea.
  The UK analysis around the time of peak intensity (04/1200 UTC) showed
  a circulation up to 500 mb and strongest in the 850 to 700 mb layer.
  Above 400 mb the system was an open trough.  Jeff sent along a QuikScat
  diagram for 04/0615 UTC which revealed a LOW with gales almost
  completely surrounding it and with a huge area of gale to storm-force
  winds on the poleward side.  The LOW tracked to the east of Norfolk
  Island where the lowest MSLP of 990.3 mb occurred at 1500 UTC on the
  4th.  The maximum 10-min mean wind of 100/43 kts, gusting to 63 kts,
  occurred at 04/0230 UTC.  The MSLP at that time was 1001.3 mb.  Jeff
  also included three sets of rawinsonde observations from Norfolk Island
  which indicated winds to hurricane force a short distance above the

     Heavy swells affected the Australian coastline.  The most exposed
  wave rider buoy (just east of Brisbane) recorded a peak wave height of
  7.9 metres.  The peak wave period was 15.9 seconds--a long period swell
  like those produced by Tropical Cyclone Sose in April.  The long period
  swells produce a larger breaking wave height than shorter period swells
  do.  The 11-metre cruiser "Just Cruising" was found wrecked on Spitfire
  Bank near the entrance to Moreton Bay and just southwest of Cape
  Moreton.  The boat had been flipped over by the large breakers; the
  crew of four were never found.

     A yacht was wrecked by large waves on a sandbar near Fraser Island
  and the lone yachtsman was never found.  Also, a woman was reported
  missing after being swept off her dinghy on the 7th near Jumpinpin Bar
  (which separates North and South Stradbroke Islands) halfway between
  Brisbane and the Gold Coast.    Farther east, a French yachtsman was
  found drowned near his stricken yacht in the Norfolk Island area.

     I'd like to extend a special thanks to Jeff for sending me the
  information on this storm.


  SOUTH PACIFIC (SPA) - South Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 160E

  Activity for July:  No tropical cyclones

  NOTE:  The hybrid system described above affected the western portion
  of the South Pacific basin also; in fact, its center seems to have
  formed and remained east of 160E.    I have reported on it as an
  Australian Region system because of the effects the heavy seas had
  in eastern Australia.

                              EXTRA FEATURE

     In order to shorten the amount of typing in preparing the narrative
  material, I have been in the habit of freely using abbreviations and
  acronyms.   I have tried to define most of these with the first usage
  in a given summary, but I may have missed one now and then.  Most of
  these are probably understood by a majority of readers but perhaps a
  few aren't clear to some.  To remedy this I developed a Glossary of
  Abbreviations and Acronyms which I first included in the July, 1998
  summary.  I don't normally include the Glossary in most months in
  order to help keep them from being too long.  If anyone would like to
  receive a copy of the Glossary, please e-mail me and I'll be happy
  to send them a copy.


  AUTHOR'S NOTE:  This summary should be considered a very preliminary 
  overview of the tropical cyclones that occur in each month. The cyclone
  tracks (provided separately) will generally be based upon operational
  warnings issued by the various tropical cyclone warning centers.  The
  information contained therein may differ somewhat from the tracking and
  intensity information obtained from a "best-track" file which is based
  on a detailed post-seasonal analysis of all available data. Information
  on where to find official "best-track" files from the various warning
  centers will be passed along from time to time.

    The track files are not being sent via e-mail.  They can be retrieved
  in the following manner:

       (a) FTP to: []
       (b) Login as: anonymous
       (c) For a password use your e-mail address
       (d) Go to "data" subdirectory (Type: cd data)
       (e) Set file type to ASCII (Type: ascii)
       (f) Transfer file (Type: get remote_file_name local_file_name )
           (The files will be named with an obvious nomenclature--using
           July as an example:   jul01.tracks)
       (g) To exit FTP, type: quit

    Both the summaries and the track files are standard text files
  created in DOS editor.  Download to disk and use a viewer such as
  Notepad or DOS editor to view the files.

     The first summary in this series covered the month of October,
  1997.   If anyone wishes to retrieve any of the previous summaries,
  they may be downloaded from the aforementioned FTP site at HRD.  The
  summary files are catalogued with the nomenclature:  jul01.sum, for

    Back issues can also be obtained from the following websites
  (courtesy of Michael Bath, Michael V. Padua, Tom Berg, Michael
  Pitt, and Rich Henning):>> OR>>>>

  NOTE:  The URL for Michael V. Padua's Typhoon 2000 website has

     Another website where much information about tropical cyclones may
  be found is the website for the UK Meteorological Office.  Their site
  contains a lot of statistical information about tropical cyclones
  globally on a monthly basis.  The URL is:>


     JTWC now has available on its website the complete Annual Tropical 
  Cyclone Report (ATCR) for 2000 and a report on the 2000-2001 season in
  the Southern Hemisphere.  ATCRs for earlier years are available also.

     The URL is:>

     Also, TPC/NHC has available on its webpage nice "technicolor"
  tracking charts for the 2000 Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific
  tropical cyclones; also, preliminary storm reports for all the 2000
  Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific cyclones are now available, as
  well as track charts and reports on storms from earlier years.

     The URL is:>

  Prepared by: Gary Padgett
  E-mail:  [email protected]
  Phone:  334-222-5327 (nights & weekends) / 850-882-2594 (weekdays)


Document: summ0107.htm
Updated: 27th December 2006

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