Tropical Cyclones
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Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary June 2001
[Summaries and Track Data] [Prepared by Gary Padgett]

                                JUNE, 2001

  (For general comments about the nature of these summaries, as well as
  information on how to download the tabular cyclone track files, see
  the Author's Note at the end of this summary.)


                             JUNE HIGHLIGHTS
  --> Relatively weak tropical storm causes devastating flooding with
      significant loss of life in southeastern U. S.
  --> Two damaging typhoons strike China
  --> Unusual small midget cyclone forms in Mozambique Channel


                ***** Feature of the Month for June *****

     As promised I'm going to summarize some of the responses to my
  little survey on the subject of subtropical/hybrid cyclones.  In
  general the comments seemed to focus primarily on two separate issues:
  (1) warning strategies for subtropical systems and (2) meteorological
  classification for climatological purposes.  I'm going to split this
  topic into two monthly features and focus on the second subject for
  this month.

     James Franklin of TPC/NHC pointed out the obvious but sometimes
  troublesome fact that there are no well-defined boundaries between
  cyclone types.  With regard to energy sources, cyclones come in a
  continuous spectrum, but forecasters (at least at NHC) have to
  pigeonhole them into three categories: tropical, subtropical, or
  non-tropical (extratropical).  In deciding whether a particular storm
  is tropical or subtropical, James indicates that he would first look
  at the structure of the wind field.  If the highest winds appear to
  be the result of central core convection, then it would be tropical.
  If they result from synoptic-scale gradients or forcing, then the
  system would be subtropical.  Thermal structure is also important,
  but the data to definitively answer that question is often not
  available.  (NOTE:  It should be pointed out that, while in some
  circles the terms subtropical and hybrid are often used synonymously,
  this tends to not often be the case at NHC.  Since its inception in
  public warning terminology in 1972, the term "subtropical storm" has
  become increasingly restricted in its application to hybrid-type
  marine cyclones.  In other words, a subtropical cyclone is a hybrid
  between classical extratropical and tropical cyclones, but not all
  hybrids are considered subtropical storms.)

     Jack Beven, also of NHC, states that he considers three main
  characteristics in deciding whether or not a given system is tropical
  or subtropical:  satellite appearance, amount and behaviour of central
  convection, and any available information on how frontal a system is.
  He admits that all three are rather subjective quantities.   Chris
  Landsea of AOML/HRD feels that a tropical cyclone should be called such
  when there is convection near or over the center of the system (within
  about one degree of latitude/longitude), it is warm core in the lower
  troposphere, is non-frontal, and has a relatively small radius of
  maximum winds (smaller than about 2.5 degrees of latitude/longitude).

     David Roth of HPC feels that for classification as a tropical
  cyclone, a system should have no large dry slots, no cold fronts or
  stratus clouds, and should have deep central convection.  In David's
  opinion, the (usually) small cyclones sometimes seen in the Atlantic
  (and also often in the Mozambique Channel) which may contain eye
  features but have shallow convection and shallow warm cores with
  cold cores aloft should be classed as subtropical rather than as
  tropical cyclones.

     Commenting also on the topic of classification of tropical cyclones,
  Rich Henning, a meteorologist at Eglin AFB and a member of the
  Hurricane Hunters squadron, suggested that perhaps there should be a
  sliding scale based on the latitude of the system and the time of year.
  Rich writes, "For example, for a system at a high latitude in November,
  there had better be a burst of deep convection at or near the center
  of the vortex that creates some evidence of a warm core and the
  establishment of a tighter pressure gradient near the center that can
  be traced to the convective event, i.e., that can be distinguished from
  the larger-scale mid-latitude cyclone gradient in which it may be 
  embedded.  For lower latitudes and/or when formation is from July to
  October, this may not be as strictly enforced, especially when cyclo-
  genesis occurs over water that is warmer than or equal to 26.5 C.  For
  cooler water temperatures, I am always skeptical about a system in the
  absence of deep, persistent convection at or near the vortex core."

     Another perspective on the subject of classification of subtropical
  cyclones is the issue of entering them into the official tropical
  cyclone database (Best Tracks file).     Rich Henning feels that
  subtropical systems should be included in the Best Tracks file so that
  it will contain a complete tropical cyclone climatology for research
  purposes.  It is generally admitted that in the Atlantic basin (and
  likely in other basins also) before the satellite era, many
  subtropical/hybrid systems were treated as tropical cyclones.  This is
  the primary reason that in the early 1970s, while not being named
  operationally, subtropical storms were added to the Atlantic database
  so as not to skew the climatology of tropical cyclones in years 
  following the introduction of the subtropical concept.    David Roth
  also feels that subtropical storms and subtropical portions of named
  tropical cyclone tracks should be added to the Best Tracks file.

     Most of the comments from Southern Hemisphere forecasters dealt with
  improved warning strategies for subtropical/hybrid systems, and many of
  their comments will be covered in next month's Feature.  However, Steve
  Ready of the New Zealand Meteorological Service, in commenting on the
  recently modified definition of a tropical cyclone for WMO Region 5
  ("a non-frontal cyclone of synoptic scale developing over tropical
  waters and having a definite organised wind circulation with a maximum
  10-minute average wind of 34 knots (63 km per hour) or greater"),
  points out that many disturbances satisfy the wind criteria but don't
  have the classical look in satellite imagery for officially naming as
  tropical cyclones.  This is especially true for systems forming outside
  the normal hurricane season or in the subtropical latitude band or in a
  strongly sheared environment.  Steve feels that systems whose status
  is debateable should not be named.  As he puts it, "If in doubt, leave

                           ACTIVITY BY BASINS

  ATLANTIC (ATL) - North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico

  Activity for June:  1 tropical storm

  NOTE:  Some of the information presented below was obtained from the
  TPC/NHC discussion bulletins issued with every regular advisory.  All
  references to sustained winds imply a 1-min averaging period unless
  otherwise noted. 

                   Atlantic Tropical Activity for June

     Over the past century of records, a tropical storm or hurricane has
  appeared in June about once every other year on the average.  The last
  Atlantic tropical storm to form in June was Tropical Storm Arlene in
  1999, so according to the long-term average it was time for another
  one this year.  Tropical Storm Allison developed rather suddenly just
  off the Texas coast on 5 June--just a few days after the official
  hurricane season had begun.  Within 24 hours after making landfall
  Allison had been downgraded to a depression, but instead of moving
  well inland and dissipating, Allison's remnants hung around the coastal
  area of southeastern Texas, and over the next several days dropped
  enormous amounts of rainfall, leading to disastrous flooding.  One of
  the hardest hit areas was the city of Houston, where some of the free-
  ways were under 5.5 m of water following Allison's deluge.  Damage
  figures from Allison's flooding are not complete, but the storm surely
  will go down in the annals of weather history as the most destructive
  tropical storm (i.e., not of hurricane intensity) on record in the
  United States.

                     Tropical Storm Allison  (TC-01)
                               5 - 19 June

     What initially appeared to be a relatively minor landfalling
  tropical storm event in southeastern Texas turned out to be a major
  disaster-in-the-making for Texas.  As the weakening Allison stalled
  and lingered in the region, very heavy rains soaked the region for
  several days, leading to a major flooding disaster for the state.
  Then, after putting much of Houston under water, the weak remnant
  LOW drifted back offshore and began to march eastward across the
  northern Gulf Coast, strengthening back to gale force over south-
  eastern Louisiana.  Heavy rains drenched all the Gulf states as
  the rejuvenated storm accelerated eastward.  Upon nearing the
  Atlantic coast, a blocking HIGH stalled Allison's remnants once
  more, allowing heavy rain to spread throughout the Southeast and
  Mid-Atlantic regions--even up into New England.

     There is no doubt that Allison is the most destructive tropical
  storm of less than hurricane force to ever affect the United States.
  Coincidentally, another Tropical Storm Allison twelve years earlier
  made landfall in the same region and dumped heavy rains for several
  days over southeastern Texas and western Louisiana.  1989's Allison,
  however, occurred the last week in June.  Damage from the earlier
  storm was estimated to have exceeded $500 million, primarily from
  flooding.  Another tropical storm named Allison, formerly a minimal
  hurricane, made landfall on the Florida Panhandle near St. Marks on
  5 June--six years earlier to the day that this year's Allison
  developed.  The Allison of 1995 was far less destructive than the
  storms of 1989 and 2001.

     Most of the report given below was taken from an excellent and
  thorough summary of Allison written by David Roth, a meteorologist at
  the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (HPC) in Maryland.  David's
  report is quite lengthy and very detailed, so only an abbreviated
  version is included here.    The full report can be obtained at the
  following URL:>

  Some information on the early stages of Allison was gleaned from the
  monthly summary of tropical activity for June prepared by the staff
  of TPC/NHC.  That report can be found at the following URL:>

  A. Origins

     Allison's origins appeared to lie with a tropical wave that left the
  west coast of Africa on 21 May.  The wave tracked westward across the
  Atlantic and Caribbean, reaching the western Caribbean on the 29th,
  later crossing into the Eastern Pacific.  A weak low-level circulation
  formed along the tropical wave south-southeast of Veracruz, Mexico,
  on 3 June, later moving into the Bay of Campeche on the 4th as an area
  of strong thunderstorms.  The LOW was guided by a nearby upper-level
  LOW towards the north-northwest through the western Gulf of Mexico.

     Thunderstorm activity increased and the system became a depression
  on the morning of the 5th.     The area of thunderstorms became
  increasingly organized, so much so that reconnaissance aircraft, along
  with ship and buoy reports, indicated the formation of a tropical storm
  located only 70 nm from Galveston, Texas.  Surface winds of 40-50 kts
  were being reported on the east side of the system.    Even though the
  storm was more like a hybrid than a purely tropical system, it was
  upgraded to the first tropical storm of the 2001 Atlantic tropical
  cyclone season.

  B. Track and Intensity History

     Initially steered by the subtropical ridge centered east of Florida,
  the cyclone moved northward, making landfall on the east end of
  Galveston Island during the evening of 5 June.  The highest winds
  reported on land were to the northeast of the center in the area with
  the tightest pressure gradient.  At Sea Rim State Park sustained winds
  reached 42 kts at 06/0250 UTC and gusts peaked at 53 kts at 0242 UTC.
  Tropical storm-force winds were reported from Galveston eastward to
  the Sabine River during the night of the 5th and on the morning of the
  6th.  The peak MSW reported in the NHC advisories was 50 kts during
  the afternoon and evening of 5 June.   Allison had weakened to a
  depression by 06/0900 UTC and the responsibility of issuing advisories
  was handed over to HPC--standard procedure when a weakening depression
  drifts inland and constitutes a flooding threat.

     Allison drifted as far inland as Lufkin, Texas, during the morning
  of the 7th, dropping large quantities of rain along and to the east of
  its path.  Much of southeast Texas and south-central Louisiana had
  already received over 255 mm of rain by the morning of 8 June.  In
  parts of Louisiana much of this rain fell within a 12-hour period on
  the 6th.  During the night of 6-7 June, heavy rains deluged northwest
  Jefferson and Orange Counties in southeast Texas when 150-250 mm fell
  in less than five hours.  On the morning of 7 June the subtropical
  HIGH off Florida weakened and drifted to the south while a ridge over
  New Mexico was intensifying.     This caused Allison's remnants to
  transcribe a clockwise loop that morning, followed by a slow south-
  westerly drift toward the coast, a movement which brought more heavy
  rainfall to Texas and Louisiana over the next couple of days.

     The center finally exited the Texas coast near Palacios during the
  evening of the 9th, becoming the first known tropical cyclone to make
  landfall in Texas only to later re-emerge back over the Gulf.  Upper-
  level westerlies associated with the southern fringe of the subtropical
  jet stream guided the LOW east-northeastward, moving it into the
  marshes and bayous of southeastern Louisiana on the morning of 11 June.
  On the 11th the LOW that was formerly Allison accomplished a rare
  feat--intensifying over land.  This was mainly due to a jet streak
  riding along the subtropical jet to its north and northeast, enhancing
  the outflow which in turn led to a stronger surface LOW.

     By 0600 UTC on the 11th the system had regained gale-force winds
  which were spreading over the Mississippi River delta area.    By
  1200 UTC an eye-like feature had developed on radar while the system
  was entering southwestern Mississippi.  The MSW increased to 40 kts
  with gusts to 50 kts in the main inflow band east of the center.  As
  the LOW edged farther inland that afternoon, it finally weakened and
  lost the eye feature.  (NOTE:  The monthly summary for June from NHC
  states that Allison's remnants re-organized as a subtropical cyclone
  before moving back inland.  Operationally, the system was treated
  as neither a tropical nor subtropical storm during this brief period
  of re-intensification, but rather was handled as a LOW with gale-force

     Allison tracked out of Mississippi into southern Alabama on the
  afternoon of 11 June, continuing its quick east-northeasterly movement.
  The forward motion began to slow as it encountered a blocking ridge of
  high pressure sitting off the New England coast.   The LOW came to a
  halt as it was nearing the Atlantic coast near Wilmington, North
  Carolina, on the morning of 14 June.  Heavy rains fell on parts of
  Georgia and South Carolina, and as the system slowed to a crawl in
  North Carolina, flooding became a major problem in that state.  Some
  locally severe weather was also reported in Georgia and the Carolinas
  on the 13th and 14th.  Several areas reported hail, and high winds
  downed power lines and trees throughout the region.  Also, dangerous
  rip currents developed in the Outer Banks as the winds became
  perpendicular to the shore.

     Allison's remnants later moved slowly northward along the Delmarva
  Peninsula.  (The Delmarva Peninsula is the peninsula which separates
  Chesapeake Bay from the Atlantic Ocean.  The states of Delaware, Mary-
  land and Virginia all occupy portions of the peninsula, hence the name:
  "DEL" from Delaware, "MAR" from Maryland, and "VA"--the official
  abbreviation for Virginia.)  A cold front moved in from the west,
  allowing moisture from Allison to pool along the front to the north
  of the center.  This set the stage for heavy rains across the northern
  Mid-Atlantic region and southern New England.

     As the system turned to the east-northeast and paralleled the coast,
  rainfall amounts of 50-100 mm fell on portions of New Jersey, southern
  New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts and Rhode Island.   The last of
  the rains associated with Allison's remnants moved out of eastern Maine
  during the early morning of 18 June as the LOW accelerated off to the
  east-northeast.  By the 19th the LOW had weakened and lost its identity
  south of the Canadian Maritimes.

  C. Meteorological Aspects

     Although rainfall was the big story in connection with Tropical
  Storm Allison, there were plenty of reports of gale-force winds or
  higher.  The winds measured at Sea Rim State Park have already been
  mentioned above.  As Allison's remnants underwent the intensification
  over Louisiana and Mississippi on 11 June, quite a few buoys and
  stations reported winds exceeding tropical storm force.  BURL1 (28.9N,
  89.3W) reported sustained winds exceeding 33 kts from 11/0700 to
  1300 UTC--the maximum of 40 kts occurring at 1300 UTC.  Winds were
  39 kts at 1100 and 1200 UTC.  Peak gusts reached 49 kts around the
  same time.   GDIL1 (29.3N, 89.9W) reported 34 kts at 11/0900 UTC with
  peak gusts over the previous hour reaching 45 kts.  Several other
  locations had peak gusts in the 45-50 kt range.  Eglin AFB, near
  Valparaiso, Florida, reported a peak gust of 47 kts shortly before
  local noon (1700 UTC).

     Along the Atlantic coast I have been unable to locate any reports
  of sustained gale-force winds.  The strongest I'm aware of was a report
  of 32 kts sustained at Diamond Shoals Lighthouse at 17/0300 UTC.  There
  were many reports of gusts in the 25-30 kt range with a few higher.
  An offshore buoy near St. Simons Island, Georgia, reported gusts to
  31 kts during the afternoon of 12 June as the LOW was crossing Georgia.
  Inland, Vidalia reported a gust to 28 kts at 2000 UTC.  Gusts to 30 kts
  were reported along the South Carolina coast on the 13th, and Atlantic
  City, New Jersey, reported sustained winds of 25 kts with gusts to
  34 kts at 0200 UTC on the 17th.

     Chris Bedford of Sailing Weather Services in Watertown,
  Massachusetts, sent some information to David Roth after David's final
  storm summary had been posted on HPC's website.   Several boats
  participating in a race from Annapolis to Newport reported quite strong
  northwesterly winds on Saturday, 16 June, after leaving Chesapeake Bay.
  Crew members on board the winning boat (Farr 60 Carrera) claimed they
  experienced winds greater than 48 kts for one hour with gusts to
  54 kts.  One boat reported 68-kt gusts while another was retired from
  the race after having its sails ripped in 40-kt sustained winds with
  gusts to 60 kts.   Chris adds, however, that the instrumentation could
  be suspect.  The stiff winds resulting from the interaction between
  Allison's remnants and the cold front apparently were such that they
  helped the boats make good time.  The winner bested the previous record
  for the race (set in 1999) by almost five hours, and the runner-up
  arrived only 23 minutes later.

     As Allison's center approached the Houston area for a second time on
  8 June, rain intensified across southeastern Texas.   Conroe measured
  209 mm during a six-hour period during the afternoon of the 8th.  In
  the Houston area over 500 mm fell within a 12-hour period.  The highest
  storm total reported from Texas was 939.5 mm at the Port of Houston.
  Allison ranks as the fourth wettest tropical cyclone in Texas history,
  the others being Tropical Storm Amelia of 1978 (1168 mm), Tropical
  Storm Claudette of 1979 (1143 mm), and an unnamed hurricane in 1921
  (1016 mm).  In Louisiana Allison ranks second behind a 1940 hurricane
  as the wettest tropical cyclone in that state's history.  The maximum
  rainfall amounts occurred in the Vermilion and Atchafalaya basins of
  south-central Louisiana with heavy rains falling each day from the
  5th through the 11th.  The highest storm total amount of 758.4 mm
  was measured at Thibodaux.   Salt Point in St. Mary Parish recorded
  699.8 mm.     Several locales recorded rainfall amounts exceeding
  500 mm.  (The peak storm total rainfall for the 1940 hurricane alluded
  to above was 856.2 mm at Crowley.)

     As Allison marched eastward, heavy rains continued to fall but the
  accumulations were much less due to the system's more rapid forward
  motion.  Gulfport, Mississippi, had recorded 304.5 mm by 1800 UTC
  on the 11th with the majority falling within a 24-hour period.  The
  main rain band moved eastward and then stalled near Tallahassee,
  Florida, where a 24-hour total of 250.4 mm was netted between the
  mornings of 11 June and 12 June.   As the LOW tracked through the
  southeastern U. S., the area of heaviest rainfall shifted to its
  northwestern quadrant each night.  Siloam, Georgia, picked up 146.1 mm
  in the 24-hour period ending on the morning of the 13th.  At a location
  just to the east of Columbia, South Carolina, a local fire department
  reported on the 13th that its rain guage had overflowed with over
  305 mm of rain in fourteen hours.

     In North Carolina Askewville recorded 216 mm of rain in a 16-hour
  period on the 15th.  A Doppler radar at Morehead City estimated that
  up to 535 mm fell across the Bertie/Hertford County border as well as
  in Halifax and Martin Counties.  Farther north the heaviest rains fell
  on the 16th.  Willow Grove Naval Air Station in Pennsylvania recorded
  215.1 mm of rain mainly in the 8-hour period between 1800 UTC and
  0200 UTC on the 17th.    Willow Grove and Chanfont reported 24-hour
  totals of 258 mm, ending on the morning of the 17th.    Finally, as
  mentioned above, rainfall amounts of 50-100 mm fell across portions
  of the Mid-Atlantic region and southern New England during Allison's
  last fling.

  D. Storm Effects

     Allison turned out to be the major flood event on record in the
  Houston area.   Portions of U. S. Highway 59 and Interstate 10 were
  deeply submerged--up to 5.5 meters in places.  Flooding of similar
  magnitude occurred in the Beaumont area as well.  At least 22 persons
  perished in the Houston area from the flooding.  Damage from Houston
  and surrounding communities alone totalled in excess of $2 billion,
  perhaps considerably more.

     Although the main threat from Allison's remnants was heavy rain,
  tornadoes touched down in Louisiana northwest of Zachary in East Baton
  Rouge during the early morning of 7 June.  One person was killed when
  a tree fell onto his vehicle.  In southeast Louisiana the Comite River
  recorded its third highest river stage on record on the 9th, cresting
  at 8.87 meters at Comite.

     Severe weather associated with Allison became more frequent during
  and following its re-intensification on 11 June due to stronger winds
  aloft interacting with the circulation.  Two tornado touchdowns were
  reported in Mississippi on the 11th--one destroyed a manufactured home
  and caused major damage to a two-story home in George County.  And, as
  noted earlier, some severe weather was reported in Georgia and the
  Carolinas on the 13th and 14th.  Hail fell at Mountain Rest, Landrum
  and Anderson, South Carolina.

     The total damage in the United States resulting from Tropical Storm
  Allison has been tentatively estimated at between $2.5 and $4 billion.
  Thirty-two fatalities have been directly attributed to the storm with
  an additional 11 deaths indirectly associated with Allison.


  NORTHEAST PACIFIC (NEP) - North Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 180

  Activity for June:  1 tropical storm

  NOTE:  Much of the information presented below was obtained from the
  TPC/NHC discussion bulletins issued with every regular advisory (CPHC
  for locations west of 140W.)  All references to sustained winds imply
  a 1-min averaging period unless otherwise noted. 

              Northeast Pacific Tropical Activity for June

     Over the period 1971-2000 the Eastern North Pacific has produced
  an average of 2.2 tropical storms per year with an average of 1.2
  reaching hurricane intensity.  This year only one tropical storm
  developed during the month, so activity was somewhat below normal.
  Tropical Storm Barbara formed farther west than most June tropical
  cyclones have formed and moved across 140W into the Central North
  Pacific as it weakened to a tropical depression.   As the month
  opened former intense Hurricane Adolph was a rapidly weakening
  tropical storm located several hundred miles south of Mexico's Baja
  California peninsula and had dissipated by the 2nd.

     The following summary on Barbara was written by John Wallace of
  San Antonio, Texas.  A special thanks to John for writing the report
  on this storm.

                   Tropical Storm Barbara  (TC-02E)
                             20 - 23 June

  A. Origins

     The origins of Barbara are somewhat uncertain.  The storm might
  have been spawned by a tropical wave that left the African coast on
  2 June.  More likely, though, it developed from a wave that was first
  noted in the central Caribbean on 10 June.  The wave tracked steadily
  westward, entering the Pacific on the 12th.  A tropical LOW had formed
  along the wave axis by 18 June and conditions favored further
  development.   By 0300 UTC on 20 June, the LOW's organization had
  increased enough to warrant its upgrade to Tropical Depression Two-E
  while located some 1375 nm west-southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico.

     The depression tracked westward, under the steering influence of a
  mid-level ridge to its north.  Its relatively unimpressive organization
  and convection increased enough to justify its upgrade to Tropical
  Storm Barbara at 2100 UTC on 20 June while located roughly 1575 nm west
  of Manzanillo.  This made Barbara the earliest storm on record to form
  so far west in the Northeast Pacific.  Its initial westward track took
  a west-northwesterly turn as the system began to "feel" the effects of
  a large, strong upper-level LOW to its northwest.

  B. Track and Intensity History

     Barbara strengthened markedly after its upgrade in an initially
  favorable environment.  The storm reached its peak MSW of 50 kts,
  with a CP of 997 mb, at 1500 UTC on 21 June about 1200 nm east of Hilo,
  Hawaii.  Even then, a weakening trend had already begun, due in large
  part to increasing southerly shear.   The presence of the LOW, along
  with cooler SSTs along the track, had ensured from the beginning that
  Barbara was living on borrowed time.

     The weakening trend was slow at first.    Ship V2FA2 reported a
  northeast wind of 47 kts and 7.9 m seas at 0000 UTC on the 22nd.  As
  the ship was then 105 nm northwest of the center, the report raised
  interesting possibilities about Barbara's true intensity.  However,
  once ship motion was factored out, the report fell more in line with
  the satellite estimates.

     Barbara steadily weakened in the face of increasing shear and cooler
  SSTs.  Nevertheless, it succeeded by a nose in becoming the first 
  Northeast Pacific storm to enter the CPHC's AOR in June.  It was
  downgraded to a depression immediately afterward, though.  The final
  advisory on Tropical Depression Barbara was issued at 0300 UTC on 
  23 June with the weakening center located some 775 nm east of Hilo,
  Hawaii.  The cyclone's remnant vortex brought some unsettled weather
  and rough surf to the islands on the 25th and 26th; it seems that
  other effects were negligible.

  C.  Damage and Casualties

     No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from Tropical
  Storm Barbara.


  NORTHWEST PACIFIC (NWP) - North Pacific Ocean West of Longitude 180

  Activity for June:  1 tropical depression **
                      2 typhoons ++

  ** - Warnings on this system were issued only by PAGASA, plus a
       track was received from Roger Edson

  ++ - One of these was not treated as a typhoon by JMA, but was by
       JTWC, the National Meteorological Center of China, and Hong
       Kong Observatory

  NOTE:  Most of the information on each cyclone's history presented in
  the narrative will be based upon JTWC's advisories, and references to
  winds should be understood as a 1-min avg MSW unless otherwise noted.
  However, in the accompanying tracking document I have made comparisons
  of coordinates with JMA (Japan) and the Philippines (PAGASA) when their
  positions differed from JTWC's by usually 40-50 nm or more.  A special
  thanks to Michael V. Padua, owner of the Typhoon 2000 website, for
  sending me the PAGASA and JMA tracks.

     Also, some information based upon warnings issued by the National
  Meteorological Center of China (NMCC) and the Hong Kong Observatory
  (HKO) is included.  The tracks from these agencies were sent to me
  by Huang Chunliang of Fuzhou City, China.     A special thanks to
  Chunliang for sending me these additional tracks.

     In the title line for each storm I plan to reference all the cyclone
  names/numbers I have available:    JTWC's depression number, the
  JMA-assigned name (if any), JMA's tropical storm numeric designator,
  and PAGASA's name for systems forming in or passing through their area
  of responsibility.

               Northwest Pacific Tropical Activity for June

     Warnings were issued for three tropical systems during June by the
  various warning agencies.     For one of these systems, Tropical
  Depression Darna, warnings were issued only by the weather service of
  the Philippines.  However, Roger Edson also sent me a track for this
  system, so I have covered it below.   Two typhoons, Chebi/Emong and
  Durian, formed and both made rather damaging strikes in China, Chebi
  in particular.  JMA did not upgrade Durian to typhoon status, but HKO
  and NMCC (Beijing) did along with JTWC.     (This storm formed and
  remained outside PAGASA's AOR.)

                        Tropical Depression Darna
                               13 - 20 June

     Darna was a fairly weak, nebulous disturbance for which warnings
  were issued only by PAGASA.  JTWC did not issue any warnings on this
  system, although four TCFAs were issued.  However, Roger Edson sent
  me a track for the disturbance, which he also considered to have been
  a tropical depression.

     JTWC issued a STWO at 0600 UTC on 11 June which mentioned an area
  of convection developing about 170 nm north of Chuuk.  Animated visible
  satellite imagery depicted disorganized, isolated deep convection
  drifting westward.  Synoptic data revealed tradewind convergence
  beneath the convection.  I do not have any more STWOs saved until the
  15th; Roger's track indicates a weak circulation (15 kts) located about
  230 nm northeast of Palau at 1200 UTC on 13 June.   Any connection with
  the disturbance mentioned by JTWC on 11 June is uncertain.  The weak
  LOW continued to move westward--by 1200 UTC on 14 June it was centered
  approximately 220 nm north-northwest of Palau with winds of 20 kts (per
  Roger's track).

     A STWO issued by JTWC at 15/0200 UTC mentioned that an area of
  convection had developed about 450 nm east of Mindanao.  Convection was
  poorly-organized over a broad area; synoptic and scatterometer data
  suggested that a weak LLCC was located within the monsoon trough.  The
  LLCC had become more defined by 1300 UTC.  A QuikScat pass at 0907 UTC
  revealed possible gusts above 25 kts associated with deep convection
  north of 15N.  The development potential was upgraded to fair.  The
  STWO issued at 16/0600 UTC indicated possible multiple LLCCs.  JTWC
  issued the first TCFA at 16/1430 UTC and PAGASA initiated warnings on
  Tropical Depression Darna at 1800 UTC.  (Darna is a fictional super-
  heroine, the Filipino version of "Wonder Woman".)

     PAGASA's track and Roger's track are in fairly good agreement at
  first, then they diverge greatly.  PAGASA's 17/1800 UTC position is
  just off the east coast of Luzon northeast of Manila, but the 18/0000
  UTC position is a relocation of the center to off the west coast of
  Luzon west-northwest of Baguio.  The 18/0600 UTC position is in the
  same general vicinity, then at 1200 UTC the center was relocated far
  to the north in the Luzon Strait--well northwest of Luzon.  PAGASA's
  track subsequently takes Darna north-northeastward toward the southern
  tip of Taiwan and inland.

     Roger Edson's track, beginning on the 17th, tracks Darna north-
  northwestward across extreme northeastern Luzon, across the Luzon
  Strait, and then up the west coast of Taiwan before taking off to the
  northeast along a frontal trough.  As noted above, JTWC did not issue
  any warnings on this system, but did issue four TCFAs, each at 1400 UTC
  on the 16th through the 19th.  The positions mentioned in the TCFAs
  roughly agree with Roger's track.  The final TCFA was cancelled at
  19/2130 UTC as the LLCC was beginning to interact with the mid-latitude
  front approaching Taiwan.   Darna was in a weakly sheared environment
  for most of its life.

     No reports of damage or casualties resulting from this system have
  been received.

                Typhoon Chebi  (TC-04W / TY 0102 / Emong)
                               19 - 24 June

  Chebi: contributed by South Korea, is a swallow--a small bird with long
         wings and a forked tail which eats insects.  Each spring the
         bird visits Korea where it is believed to bring good fortune.

  A. Origins

     An intermediate STWO issued by JTWC at 1400 UTC on 19 June indicated
  that an area of convection had developed southeast of Yap.  Animated
  infrared imagery indicated an increase in coverage of deep convection
  over the previous 12 hours.  Microwave data indicated a possible weak
  surface circulation while a 200-mb analysis revealed weak diffluence
  associated with an upper-level trough.   By 1800 UTC the disturbance
  was centered roughly 150 nm east-northeast of Palau.  New bursts of
  convection were occurring to the north of a broad LLCC in the monsoon
  trough; the development potential was upgraded to fair.

     However, shortly afterward early morning visible pictures depicted
  that significant intensification and development had occurred over the
  past four hours with a rapidly developing banding feature over the
  southern quadrant.  The first warning on TD-04W was issued at 2100 UTC
  placing the depression's center about 275 nm north-northeast of Palau
  at 1800 UTC.   The depression had entered PAGASA's AOR by 20/0000 UTC
  and that agency began issuing warnings on the system as a tropical
  storm, which was named Emong (a Filipino nickname).    Six hours later
  both JTWC and JMA upgraded the depression to tropical storm intensity
  with JMA assigning the name Chebi.   Tropical Storm Chebi was located
  about 350 nm north-northwest of Palau at this time.

  B. Track and Intensity History

     A mid-level subtropical ridge extending northward from a HIGH north
  of the Mariana Islands was the main steering influence on Chebi through
  most of its life.  The storm embarked on a general west-northwestward
  to northwestward track which it maintained until it turned northward
  in the Taiwan Strait on 23 June.   Winds were up to 45 kts at 0000 UTC
  on the 21st as Chebi passed about 200 nm east-northeast of Catanduanes
  Island in the Philippines.   JTWC upgraded Chebi to a typhoon at
  22/0000 UTC when it was located about 80 nm east-southeast of the
  northeastern tip of Luzon.  Satellite CI estimates were 65 kts and
  microwave imagery revealed a partial eyewall feature.   (JMA upgraded
  the storm to a typhoon 12 hours later.)  Typhoon Chebi passed just off
  the northeastern tip of Luzon and moved into the Luzon Strait where it
  continued to intensify.

     Chebi reached its peak estimated intensity of 100 kts at 23/0000 UTC
  when it was centered approximately 75 nm west of the southern tip of
  Taiwan.  Gales extended outward 100 nm from the center in the southeast
  quadrant and up to 75 nm in the northwest quadrant, while 50-kt winds
  were estimated to extend out 60 nm to the southeast.  A mid-latitude
  system over eastern China began to influence the typhoon and it turned
  to a northward track which took it inland into eastern China around
  1730 UTC just southeast of Fuzhou City, near Fuqing, in Fujian
  Province.  The MSW was estimated at 85 kts near the time of landfall.
  (This was JTWC's estimate--a report received by the author from Huang
  Chunliang of Fuzhou City indicates that NMCC estimated the 10-min avg
  sustained wind at 66 kts near the time of landfall.)   As the system
  accelerated northward it began to interact with a baroclinic zone over
  eastern China.  JTWC issued their final warning on Chebi at 24/0000 UTC
  with the storm inland and weakening.  JMA and NMCC continued to track
  Chebi for another 12 hours as it accelerated northeastward and back out
  to sea.  The center passed about 70 nm southeast of Shanghai around
  0600 UTC, and the final bulletin from the two warning centers placed it
  offshore approximately 200 nm northeast of Shanghai at 1200 UTC.

     Typhoon Chebi reached its estimated peak intensity of 100 kts (1-min
  avg MSW) at 0000 UTC on 23 June.    The estimated minimum central 
  pressure (from JMA's bulletins) of 955 mb also occurred at the same

  C. Meteorological Aspects

     As Typhoon Chebi passed near Taiwan heavy rains fell on portions of
  the island.  Some locations received between 200 and 300 mm during the
  24 hours ending at 24/0000 UTC.   At Laog, in northern Luzon, 281 mm
  fell in the 30-hour period ending at 23/0600 UTC.  (Thanks to Patrick
  Hoareau for passing this information along.)

     Fuzhou City did not report sustained winds of typhoon strength--the
  peak there was 61 kts at 23/0003 UTC.     Typhoon-force winds were
  reported in Fuqing, Pingtan, Lianjiang, and Luoyuan.  Typhoon Chebi
  dropped 107.9 mm, 108.0 mm, 96.5 mm, and 86.1 mm of rain on Fuqing,
  Lianjiang, Pingtan, and Changle, respectively, within a six-hour
  period from 1200 to 1800 UTC on 23 June.  (This information taken from
  a report on the storm sent to me by Huang Chunliang--a special thanks
  to Chunliang for sending the report.)

  D. Comparisons between JTWC and Other Centers

     Center position estimates were in very good agreement between all
  the various warning agencies throughout the life of Chebi.  Intensity
  estimates between JTWC and JMA agreed fairly well (after adjusting to
  the same averaging period) except for the peak intensity.    JTWC
  estimated the peak MSW at 100 kts while JMA's estimated peak 10-min
  mean wind was 75 kts, equivalent to approximately 85 kts 1-min avg MSW.
  While PAGASA was the first warning center to upgrade the system to
  tropical storm intensity, their intensity estimates were the lowest
  near the time of peak intensity:  only 65 kts (10-min avg) at 23/0000
  UTC when JTWC was reporting 100 kts.     HKO's peak 10-min mean wind
  estimate was 75 kts--the same as JMA's.   NMCC was the warning center
  reporting the highest 10-min avg sustained wind.  Their peak of 80 kts
  is equivalent to about 90 kts 1-min avg MSW---in fairly good agreement
  with JTWC.

  E. Damage and Casualties

     Typhoon Chebi paid a rather deadly visit to China's Fujian Province.
  Reports indicate that 71 persons died with 83 missing in the Fuzhou
  area.   In Ningde City, to the north of Fuzhou City, two persons died
  and four were reported missing.   A landslide on 26 June due to the
  heavy rains of Chebi was responsible for 22 deaths in Hangzhou City,
  the capital of Zhejiang Province.

     In Fuzhou damage from the typhoon was widespread with 2,144,300
  residents seriously affected.  Total economic losses were estimated to
  have been approximately 3 billion yuan in the city.    Also, 65,362
  hectares of farmland were seriously damaged by the storm.  In Ningde
  City over 320,000 houses were damaged or destroyed--economic losses
  there are estimated at 503 million yuan.  (Again, a big thanks to
  Huang Chunliang for compiling all this information and sending it to

     In Taiwan at least nine deaths were attributed to Typhoon Chebi.
  Also, the typhoon sank a 5300-ton freighter with 23 persons on board.
  At the time of the report I received, six had been rescued, five were
  known dead, and 12 were still missing.  (This information sent by
  Matthew Saxby--thanks to Matthew for passing the report along.)

                   Typhoon Durian  (TC-05W / STS 0103)
                             29 June - 3 July

  Durian: contributed by Thailand, is a favorite fruit of Thailand
          (Durio zibethinus)

  A. Origins

     JTWC issued a STWO at 0000 UTC on 29 June indicating that an area
  of convection had developed in the South China Sea.  Early morning
  animated visible pictures depicted cyclonically curved low-level cloud
  lines outlining a LLCC in the monsoon trough which extended over the
  area.  A 200-mb analysis indicated diffluent flow aloft, but moderate
  vertical shear seemed to be hindering development somewhat.    JTWC
  assessed the development potential as fair.  JMA classified the system
  as a tropical depression at 29/0600 UTC when it was centered about
  400 nm south-southeast of Hong Kong.  JTWC issued a TCFA at the same
  hour, noting that synoptic reports indicated pressure falls and
  increasing winds in the area.

     JTWC issued their first warning on TD-05W at 29/1800 UTC.  The
  depression was centered about 390 nm south-southeast of Hong Kong and
  was forecast to track northwestward under the influence of a mid-level
  subtropical ridge over Taiwan.  At 0000 UTC on the 30th JTWC upgraded
  the depression to a tropical storm based on CI estimates of 30 and 35
  kts.  The storm was then located 350 nm south-southeast of Hong Kong.
  Six hours later JMA upgraded the system to Tropical Storm Durian.

  B. Track and Intensity History

     Durian moved on a fairly steady northwesterly track throughout its
  life as it was guided by a subtropical ridge extending westward from
  a mid-level HIGH south of Kyushu.   JTWC upgraded the storm to typhoon
  status at 0600 UTC on 1 July when it was centered about 200 nm south-
  west of Hong Kong.  (NMCC and HKO both upgraded Durian to a typhoon
  at 1200 UTC while JMA never regarded this storm as a typhoon.)  Durian
  reached its peak estimated MSW of 75 kts at 1800 UTC when it was
  located in Mandarin Bay just east of the Luichow Peninsula.  Gales
  covered an area roughly 150 nm in diameter.   Typhoon Durian jogged
  very slightly more to the west-northwest and crossed over the northern
  portion of the Luichow Peninsula and into the extreme northern Gulf of

     The storm skimmed along the southern coast of Kwangtung Province,
  eventually making landfall just east of the Laotian border as a minimal
  typhoon.    Once inland, the storm began to weaken quickly as it
  continued on its northwestward track, roughly parallel to the border
  with Laos.   Durian was at its estimated peak intensity of 75 kts from
  01/1800 through 02/0600 UTC.  The minimum estimated central pressure
  (from JMA's bulletins) was 970 mb at 01/1800 UTC.

  C. Meteorological Aspects

     I did not receive as many rainfall reports or surface wind
  observations for Typhoon Durian as I normally do from my usual sources.
  A report on the storm sent by Huang Chunliang indicated maximum 10-min
  mean winds were 70 kts, gusting to 90 kts, when Durian made landfall
  near Zhanjiang City in Guangdong Province at 1930 UTC on 2 July.  This
  seems likely to be based on the warnings from NMCC and not a direct
  observation.  One press report mentioned that a foot of rain (305 mm)
  fell near Zhanjiang.  Chunliang's report indicated that several coastal
  cities in the Guangxi region reported storm total rainfall amounts
  ranging from 237 to 290 mm.  Nanning, the regional capital, recorded
  209 mm of rain from the storm.

  D. Comparisons between JTWC and Other Centers

     As was the case with Typhoon Chebi, center position estimates
  between the various warning centers generally agreed closely for most
  of Typhoon Durian's life.   JMA did not upgrade Durian to a typhoon;
  however, their estimated maximum 10-min mean wind of 60 kts would be
  equivalent to about 70 kts 1-min avg MSW, which agrees rather closely
  with JTWC's estimated peak intensity of 75 kts.   HKO's peak intensity
  of 65 kts and NMCC's peak of 70 kts both agree closely with JTWC.
  JTWC, however, maintained Durian as a typhoon longer than did the
  other centers.  HKO and NMCC downgraded the system shortly after its
  initial landfall on the Luichow Peninsula, whereas JTWC maintained
  Durian as a typhoon through 1200 UTC on 2 July when it was well inland
  in China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

  E. Damage and Casualties

     In southwestern Guangdong Province, where Durian initially made
  landfall, the cities of Zhanjiang, Yangjiang, and Maoming reported
  heavy damage.  Over 13,000 houses were wrecked, affecting 3.72 million
  residents in some shape or form, and 1800 businesses were forced to
  close.  Direct economic losses amounted to 3.7 billion yuan (equivalent
  to $448 million U.S.).   Transport across the Qiongzhou Strait was
  shut down for 34 hours with 3000 passengers being delayed.  Sugarcane
  fields and banana trees were wiped out and more than 52,000 farm
  animals were killed.

     At least one person was killed and another reported missing in
  south China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.  (Some press reports
  mention three persons missing.)  Some 3.36 million persons in this
  part of China were affected by the typhoon, the worst in 30 years in
  the region.  Direct economic losses caused by Durian are estimated at
  812 million yuan (about $978,000 U.S.), including the destruction of
  5550 buildings, the inundation of 149,500 hectares of cropland, and the
  death of 25,000 head of livestock.

     Patrick Hoareau sent along a report which stated that 22 persons
  were killed in Vietnam due to floods spawned by Typhoon Durian's rains.
  The report also indicated that 20,000 homes had been destroyed in the
  country by the flooding.


  NORTH INDIAN OCEAN (NIO) - Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea

  Activity for June:  No tropical cyclones

              North Indian Ocean Tropical Activity for June

     There were no tropical cyclones in the North Indian Ocean during
  June, but there was a disturbance in the northern Bay of Bengal from
  around the 9th through the 12th which possibly was a monsoon depression
  type of system.   The area was mentioned for several days in JTWC's
  daily STWOs and was assigned a fair potential for development on the
  10th when convection was seen to be increasing west of a partially-
  exposed LLCC and shear was weak.   An upper-level HIGH over the region,
  however, soon shifted to the northeast and vertical shear increased,
  and the potential for development was downgraded to poor.  By 12 June
  the center was on the coast of northern India near Paradip and
  apparently continued to move westward and inland.  The maximum winds
  were estimated at 25 kts on 10 June and the minimum pressure was
  estimated at 997 mb on the 11th and 12th.  No track was given for this
  system in the June tropical cyclone tracks file.


  SOUTHWEST INDIAN OCEAN (SWI) - South Indian Ocean West of Longitude 90E

  Activity for June:  1 tropical storm **

  ** - System was treated as a tropical storm by JTWC, but at least three
       tropical meteorologists expressed the opinion that the system was
       likely a minimal hurricane (cyclone).  MFR classified the system
       only as a tropical depression, but indicated that gale-force winds
       likely occurred in limited areas within the circulation.

                    Tropical Cyclone  (TC-21S / MFR #11)
                                20 - 23 June

     The Mozambique Channel was the scene of two interesting but
  unrelated phenomena on 21 June.   The moon's umbral shadow raced
  across the Channel in the first total solar eclipse of the new
  millennium (after having crossed Africa), and an extremely small
  midget cyclone, sporting an eye and well-organized, although shallow,
  convection developed suddenly off the African coast to the south of
  the eclipse track.  (NOTE:  I've used the term "tropical cyclone" in
  the title line above in a generic sense, not meaning to imply that the
  official WMO-sanctioned warning agencies, La Reunion and Madagascar,
  upgraded the system to tropical cyclone (i.e., hurricane) status.)

     The primary track for the cyclone included in the tropical cyclone
  tracks file for June, as well as the 1-min avg MSW estimates, were
  for the most part provided by Dr. Karl Hoarau of Cergy-Pontoise
  University near Paris.  Karl based his intensity estimates on his own
  Dvorak analysis, plus QuikScat data.

  A. Origins

     The origin of the midget system isn't exactly clear.  Karl's track
  locates a weak 20-kt LOW at 0000 UTC on 20 June about 325 nm east-
  southeast of Durban, South Africa.  The LOW moved initially somewhat
  quickly north-northeastward to a point about 175 nm east-northeast of
  Durban by 1800 UTC.  Karl estimates the 1-min avg MSW to be 35 kts at
  this point.   Tony Cristaldi of the NWS office in Melbourne, Florida,
  indicated that he had some satellite imagery which depicted a mature/
  dissipating baroclinic wave cyclone spawning the subtropical vortex
  which became TC-21S.  This is the first known instance of a tropical
  cyclone developing in the Mozambique Channel in the month of June
  since the advent of the satellite era (1967-1968 season in the South
  Indian Ocean).

  B. Track and Intensity History

     Based on Karl's track, by 0600 UTC on 21 June the system had reached
  a point about 300 nm northeast or Durban or 500 nm west-southwest of
  Tulear on the southwestern coast of Madagascar.    At 21/0455 UTC a
  QuikScat pass indicated winds of 60 kts.  In Karl's estimation, the
  MSW had reached 65 kts at this point.  Roger Edson and Chip Guard also
  expressed the opinion that the midget cyclone likely contained winds of
  hurricane intensity.  MFR initiated warnings at 1200 UTC, assigning a
  maximum 10-min avg wind of 30 kts and designating the disturbance as
  Subtropical Depression #11.  JTWC issued the first of four warnings
  at 1800 UTC, estimating the MSW at 45 kts.

     By the time the warning centers had begun issuing warnings, the
  system was beginning to come under some shear from a polar disturbance
  to its south and was weakening.   After the cyclone's rapid deepening
  on 21 June, it turned abruptly eastward and for the next couple of days
  moved rather slowly east-northeastward across the Mozambique Channel.
  It was centered about 200 nm southwest of Tulear at 22/1800 UTC when
  MFR issued their last bulletin, and was about 100 nm southwest of the
  city when JTWC issued their final warning at 23/0600 UTC.

  C. Meteorological Aspects

     At the time of the initial explosive deepening on 21 June, the small
  system displayed very well-organized convection with a visible eye,
  spiral banding, and a symmetrical CDO.  However, the convection was
  considerably shallower than that normally seen in tropical cyclones
  with cloud top temperatures in the -40 to -45 C range.    Philippe
  Aliaga, a forecaster at RSMC La Reunion, felt that with such shallow
  convection, a standard Dvorak analysis was not possible, so it was
  difficult to determine the windspeeds near the center.    Philippe
  indicated that the system certainly generated winds near gale force
  (30 kts), and could have contained winds somewhat stronger (>40 kts).

     Another aspect of this system was its very small size.  According
  to Karl Hoarau, the entire cloud system was about 90 nm in diameter
  at its maximum intensity.  Brian McNoldy of Colorado State University
  made the observation that if the midget cyclone were superimposed on
  the United States, most of it would fit in the southern tip of Florida
  from Lake Okeechobee southward.

     The lowest central pressure reported in MFR warnings was 1000 mb.
  In his analysis of the system, Karl Hoarau estimated that the minimum
  pressure was likely around 990 mb.   One final interesting aspect of
  the system was that its rapid intensification occurred over SSTs of
  24 to 25 C--an event not all that uncommon in the North Atlantic

  D. Damage and Casualties

     No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from this small
  out-of-season tropical system.



  Activity for June:  No tropical cyclones


  Activity for June:  No tropical cyclones


  SOUTH PACIFIC (SPA) - South Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 160E

  Activity for June:  No tropical cyclones

                              EXTRA FEATURE

     In order to shorten the amount of typing in preparing the narrative
  material, I have been in the habit of freely using abbreviations and
  acronyms.   I have tried to define most of these with the first usage
  in a given summary, but I may have missed one now and then.  Most of
  these are probably understood by a majority of readers but perhaps a
  few aren't clear to some.  To remedy this I developed a Glossary of
  Abbreviations and Acronyms which I first included in the July, 1998
  summary.  I don't normally include the Glossary in most months in
  order to help keep them from being too long.  If anyone would like to
  receive a copy of the Glossary, please e-mail me and I'll be happy
  to send them a copy.


  AUTHOR'S NOTE:  This summary should be considered a very preliminary 
  overview of the tropical cyclones that occur in each month. The cyclone
  tracks (provided separately) will generally be based upon operational
  warnings issued by the various tropical cyclone warning centers.  The
  information contained therein may differ somewhat from the tracking and
  intensity information obtained from a "best-track" file which is based
  on a detailed post-seasonal analysis of all available data. Information
  on where to find official "best-track" files from the various warning
  centers will be passed along from time to time.

    The track files are not being sent via e-mail.  They can be retrieved
  in the following manner:

       (a) FTP to: []
       (b) Login as: anonymous
       (c) For a password use your e-mail address
       (d) Go to "data" subdirectory (Type: cd data)
       (e) Set file type to ASCII (Type: ascii)
       (f) Transfer file (Type: get remote_file_name local_file_name )
           (The files will be named with an obvious nomenclature--using
           June as an example:   jun01.tracks)
       (g) To exit FTP, type: quit

    Both the summaries and the track files are standard text files
  created in DOS editor.  Download to disk and use a viewer such as
  Notepad or DOS editor to view the files.

     The first summary in this series covered the month of October,
  1997.   If anyone wishes to retrieve any of the previous summaries,
  they may be downloaded from the aforementioned FTP site at HRD.  The
  summary files are catalogued with the nomenclature:  jun01.sum, for

    Back issues can also be obtained from the following websites
  (courtesy of Michael Bath, Michael V. Padua, Tom Berg, Michael
  Pitt, and Rich Henning):>> OR>>>>

  NOTE:  The URL for Michael V. Padua's Typhoon 2000 website has

     Another website where much information about tropical cyclones may
  be found is the website for the UK Meteorological Office.  Their site
  contains a lot of statistical information about tropical cyclones
  globally on a monthly basis.  The URL is:>


     JTWC now has available on its website the complete Annual Tropical 
  Cyclone Report (ATCR) for 2000 (1999-2000 season for the Southern 
  Hemisphere).  ATCRs for earlier years are available also.

     The URL is:>

     Also, TPC/NHC has available on its webpage nice "technicolor"
  tracking charts for the 2000 Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific
  tropical cyclones; also, preliminary storm reports for all the 2000
  Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific cyclones are now available, as
  well as track charts and reports on storms from earlier years.

     The URL is:>

  Prepared by: Gary Padgett
  E-mail:  [email protected]
  Phone:  334-222-5327 (nights & weekends) / 850-882-2594 (weekdays)


Document: summ0106.htm
Updated: 29th December 2006

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