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Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary February 2000
[Summaries and Track Data] [Prepared by Gary Padgett]


                              FEBRUARY, 2000

  (For general comments about the nature of these summaries, as well as
  information on how to download the tabular cyclone track files, see
  the Author's Note at the end of this summary.)


                          SPECIAL NOTE by AUTHOR

     Since August, 1999, most of the Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone
  Summaries have been initially issued in two or three installments in
  the interest of getting information out as quickly as possible.
  However, after the final installment has been disseminated, I put
  together all the sections into one complete summary and send this to
  the several persons who archive the summaries.   For those persons who
  wish to archive their own copy of the summaries for future reference,
  I would advise downloading the completed version from one of the web-
  sites referenced at the end of each summary.   I occasionally make
  some corrections or revisions after the initial installments have been
  mailed out, and in one case, I received some additional information
  which was incorportated into the final version.

                           FEBRUARY HIGHLIGHTS

  --> Extremely long-lived and far-traveled Indian Ocean cyclone wreaks
      havoc in Madagascar and Mozambique
  --> Rapidly forming cyclone strikes Cairns, Queensland--regenerates in
      Gulf of Carpentaria

                           ACTIVITY BY BASINS

  ATLANTIC (ATL) - North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico

  Activity for February:  No tropical cyclones


  NORTHEAST PACIFIC (NEP) - North Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 180

  Activity for February:  No tropical cyclones


  NORTHWEST PACIFIC (NWP) - North Pacific Ocean West of Longitude 180

  Activity for February:  No tropical cyclones

  NORTH INDIAN OCEAN (NIO) - Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea

  Activity for February:  No tropical cyclones


  SOUTH INDIAN OCEAN (SIO) - South Indian Ocean West of Longitude 90E

  Activity for February:  2 moderate tropical storms **
                          2 severe tropical storms ++
                          1 intense tropical cyclone (hurricane)

  ** - This based upon official classification from RSMC La Reunion.  
       Based upon JTWC warnings Tropical Storm Gloria briefly reached
       minimal hurricane (cyclone) intensity.

  ++ - This total includes Tropical Storm Connie, which on 1 Feb was
       still technically at severe tropical storm intensity, but was
       rapidly weakening and by 2 Feb had weakened significantly and
       was becoming extratropical.

     The primary sources of information upon which the narrative is based
  are the warnings issued by the TCWC on La Reunion Island, associated
  with Meteo France, and which is the RSMC for the South Indian Ocean
  basin.  However, cyclones in this region are named by the sub-regional
  centres on Mauritius and Madagascar with longitude 55E as the dividing
  line between their respective areas.  La Reunion only advises these
  centres regarding the intensity of tropical systems.   References to
  sustained winds should be understood as meaning a 10-min averaging 
  period unless otherwise stated.   In the accompanying tracks file
  some position comparisons have been made with JTWC's positions, and
  warnings from JTWC were used as a source of 1-min avg MSW estimates.
  Also, the comments about satellite imagery and other sources of data
  such as SSM/I and TRMM were obtained for the most part from the JTWC

                 South Indian Ocean Activity for February

     The month of February was quite active in the South Indian Ocean
  west of longitude 90E.  As indicated in the note above, former Tropical
  Cyclone Connie was still active as the month began, but rapidly
  disappeared from the scene.  Short-lived Tropical Storm Damienne was
  named on 1 Feb, but weakened rapidly on 2 Feb and dissipated later that
  day.   Felicia formed after mid-month out in the central South Indian
  Ocean and reached severe tropical storm intensity, but ultimately
  moved uneventfully to higher latitudes and weakened.   At the end of
  the month Tropical Storm Gloria formed just east of the northern tip
  of Madagascar and made landfall there on 1 March.    (JTWC briefly
  classified Gloria as a cyclone (i.e., hurricane) when an eye became
  visible along the coast as the storm made landfall.)   Also, an area of
  disturbed weather was becoming better organized out in mid-ocean as
  February ended and became a tropical depression during the first few
  days of March.  This system will be covered in the March summary.

     All this being said, the main tropical event of February was major
  Tropical Cyclone Eline (formerly known as Leon in the Australian
  Region).   Leon had reached hurricane intensity on 6 Feb while well
  off the coast of Western Australia, but had weakened to near minimal
  cyclone (tropical storm) strength by the time it crossed 90E into the
  Southwest Indian basin and was renamed Eline by Mauritius.  The storm
  almost dissipated, but managed to hang on and eventually traveled
  across the entire southern Indian Ocean to make landfall in both
  Madagascar and in Mozambique.  Not only that, the cyclone underwent 
  remarkably rapid intensification shortly before each of the two 
  landfalls.  The torrential rains of Tropical Cyclone Eline served 
  to exacerbate the already-severe and massive flooding taking place in

                 Tropical Storm Damienne  (TC-10S / SIO #5)
                           31 January - 2 February

     An area of convection was mentioned in a STWO by JTWC at 0000 UTC
  on 27 Jan southeast of Diego Garcia near 9S, 79E.  A broad LLCC was
  present but the convection was disorganized.  Over the next few days
  the disturbed area drifted westward, exhibiting persistent but still
  disorganized convection.    Moderate vertical shear was present over
  the region and prevented the disturbance from intensifying rapidly.
  The system remained quasi-stationary for several days roughly 300 nm
  southeast of Diego Garcia.     By 31 Jan animated infrared satellite
  imagery indicated that convection was beginning to organize around
  the LLCC somewhat, and JTWC upgraded the potential for development to
  Fair.        MFR initiated bulletins on the system at 31/0600 UTC,
  designating it as disturbance #5.  MSW were estimated at 25 kts with
  local winds to 30 kts possible in some areas.    The LLCC was rather
  broad with the primary convection developing southwest of the center.

     The disturbance was upgraded directly to Tropical Storm Damienne
  at 0000 UTC on 1 Feb when it was located about 425 nm southeast of
  Diego Garcia.   JTWC had not initiated warnings at this juncture but
  a Formation Alert was issued at 01/0130 UTC.   SSM/I data indicated
  a developing convective band west of the LLCC beginning to wrap around
  the northeast quadrant of the system.  200-mb analysis showed an upper-
  level ridge extending over Damienne.   The MFR warning at 0600 UTC
  increased the MSW to 40 kts and relocated Damienne's center about
  115 nm east of the previous warning position.     During the day
  Damienne moved steadily almost due south.    JTWC issued the first
  warning at 1800 UTC when the storm was about 575 nm southeast of Diego
  Garcia.   JTWC's initial MSW estimate (1-min avg) was 45 kts, which
  compares well with MFR's 10-min avg wind of 40 kts.

     The initial JTWC warning forecast Damienne to strengthen to cyclone
  (hurricane) intensity but this failed to materialize.   A SSM/I pass
  at 02/0025 UTC showed the deep convection to be sheared about 130 nm
  southeast of the LLCC.    The warning from La Reunion at 02/0600 UTC
  relocated the center about 100 nm northwest of the 0000 UTC position
  and downgraded Damienne to a tropical depression.  The concurrent JTWC
  warning lowered the MSW to 40 kts and indicated that Damienne was
  tracking slowly southwestward at 7 kts.   It was thought that a mid-
  level HIGH positioned to the southeast of the storm would build north-
  eastward over Cocos Island and steer Damienne into a more favorable
  environment for strengthening, but the storm continued to track
  southwestward and weaken.        MFR issued the last bulletin at
  02/1200 UTC and JTWC issued their last at 1800 UTC.    A SSM/I pass
  showed minimal convection associated with the system and that was
  sheared well to the south of the LLCC.  A scatterometer pass indicated
  winds of only 10 kts near the LLCC, and CIMSS charts indicated that
  strong vertical shear continued over the system.     The final JTWC
  position was about 630 nm south-southeast of Diego Garcia.

               Tropical Cyclone Leon-Eline  (TC-11S / SIO #6)
                               3 - 23 February

     Tropical Cyclone Leon-Eline was certainly one of the longest-lived
  and farthest-traveled cyclones on record in the Southern Hemisphere.
  From its inception south of Java on 3 Feb til its final dissipation
  over Zimbabwe on 23 Feb, this great tropical cyclone's track spanned
  80 degrees of longitude--almost one-quarter of the way around the
  globe!   The storm was not only noteworthy for its longevity and
  track--it also made destructive landfalls in two countries after
  having, in both instances, underwent very rapid intensification.
  (This portion of the summary will cover the second part of the
  cyclone's lifespan in the Southwest Indian basin--the first portion
  of the storm's history as Leon east of 90E is detailed in the section
  of this summary covering the Australian Region.)

     Tropical Cyclone Leon reached an initial peak intensity of 70 kts
  while in the Australian Region on 6 Feb, but had weakened considerably
  by the time it crossed 90E into the Southwest Indian region.  An upper-
  level ridge axis to the north was creating shear over the system,
  resulting in a fully-exposed LLCC with all the significant convection
  sheared to the south.   Both Perth and JTWC were estimating the
  MSW at 40 kts as Leon exited the Perth AOR; however, JTWC did call
  for the storm to move back into a more favorable environment after
  48-72 hours.   Leon entered the Mauritius/La Reunion AOR around
  1500 UTC on 8 Feb at a point approximately 500 nm west-southwest of
  Cocos Island, and, in accordance with long-standing practice, was
  renamed Eline by the Mauritius Meteorological Service.

     Over the next several days Tropical Storm Eline moved generally
  westward across the wide expanse of the South Indian Ocean.  On the
  9th some convection tried to re-establish itself around the tightly-
  wrapped LLCC, and MFR and JTWC increased the MSW estimates to 45 kts
  at 0600 UTC.  However, JTWC soon decreased their MSW (1-min) to 40 kts
  and to 35 kts by 1200 UTC on 10 Feb, but MFR increased the 10-min avg
  intensity to 50 kts (severe tropical storm level) from 09/1800 UTC
  through 10/1800 UTC before downgrading Eline back to a moderate
  tropical storm (MSW < 48 kts).  Vertical shear associated with an
  upper-level ridge axis to the south of Eline inhibited further
  intensification but the storm was able to hold its own.   The "low
  point" in Eline's life seemed to come around 1200 UTC on 11 Feb when
  MFR's and JTWC's MSW estimates were 35 and 30 kts, respectively.
  The center of the weak tropical storm was located roughly 600 nm south
  of Diego Garcia about this time.

     By 12 Feb the vertical shear which had been inhibiting Eline's
  further development had decreased somewhat and convection began
  consolidating around the LLCC.   Winds were up to 45 kts by late on
  the 12th and further increased to 50 kts on the 13th as Eline had
  become positioned under a 200-mb ridge axis.    Ever since around
  0000 UTC on 10 Feb the storm had been moving on a course ever so
  slightly north of due west, and at 0600 UTC on 13 Feb had reached
  a position about 220 nm north of Rodrigues Island.   Soon after this,
  however, Eline turned to a west-southwesterly course and began to
  steadily intensify.

     JTWC upped the MSW (1-min) to 70 kts at 14/0000 UTC, and MFR had
  increased their 10-min avg estimate to 60 kts by 0600 UTC when the
  storm was centered only about 50 nm south-southeast of St. Brandon.
  A TRMM pass at 13/2101 UTC revealed an eye 12 nm in diameter with
  good outflow in all quadrants.  Later on the 14th the intensification
  process reached a plateau as a mid- to upper-level trough southwest of
  the system weakened the mid-level subtropical ridge and enhanced west-
  northwesterly flow over Eline, causing the convection to be sheared
  somewhat to the south.   MFR brought down the intensity to 55 kts at
  1800 UTC and JTWC decreased their MSW estimate to 65 kts at 15/1200
  UTC.    Severe Tropical Storm Eline continued on a west-southwesterly
  course during this time, passing about 125 nm north of Mauritius
  around 1800 UTC on 14 Feb and about 140 nm north of Reunion around
  1200 UTC on the 15th.      On Mauritius a peak gust of 71 kts was
  recorded at Ft. William with attendant heavy rainfall which officially
  ended the drought.  The average rainfall over the island during the
  period 12-16 Feb was 228 mm with a maximum of 405 mm (exact location
  unknown).  A 24-hour total of 182 mm was also recorded on 16-17 Feb.
  (A special thanks to Arvind Mungur of London for passing along this
  information to me.)

     As the 15th progressed deep convection began to recover abit and
  then held steady.  MFR estimated the MSW (10-min) at 60 kts once more
  at 1800 UTC, and then upgraded Eline to a tropical cyclone (hurricane)
  with 65-kt winds at 0600 UTC on 16 Feb.  JTWC maintained the storm
  at 65 kts through the 16th as animated satellite imagery depicted a
  partially-exposed LLCC with persistent deep convection.  Water vapor
  imagery showed some dry air entraining into the southeast quadrant,
  and CIMSS charts indicated that Eline was still under some weak
  vertical shearing.    The cyclone turned to more of a westerly course
  on the 16th and began to approach the east coast of Madagascar on
  the 17th.   By 1200 UTC the center was within 30 nm of the coast, and
  landfall occurred near Mahanoro around 1500 UTC.

     Tropical Cyclone Eline underwent a very significant intensification
  in the 24 hours prior to landfall.    MFR seemed to pick up on this 
  trend a little sooner than did JTWC with the 10-min avg winds up to
  70 kts at 0000 UTC and to 75 kts at 0600 UTC while JTWC maintained
  a 65-kt MSW (1-min avg).   However, at 1200 UTC both centers reported
  80 kts.   The 1200 UTC warning from JTWC contained the statement that
  a peak intensity of 85 kts had likely occurred at 0600 UTC, but the
  subsequent warning at 18/0000 UTC indicated that a peak intensity of
  90 kts (1-min avg) had occurred near the time of landfall (around
  1500 UTC).   Philippe Caroff, the Chief Forecaster at RSMC La Reunion,
  expressed the opinion that Eline possibly reached a maximum 10-min avg
  windspeed of 95 kts, or MSW (1-min) of 110 kts, about the time of

     Eline predictably weakened significantly while crossing over the
  large, mountainous island of Madagascar, its winds dropping to around
  30 kts.  Even though over land, the system retained good outflow aloft
  in all quadrants.      The depression moved out over the Mozambique
  Channel on the 19th and began to slowly regain strength with the
  primary band of convection to the north of the LLCC.     By late on
  19 Feb Eline had regained tropical storm intensity with the MSW up
  to 45 kts.   On 20 Feb the storm continued to strengthen and reached
  the severe tropical storm category with winds increasing to 55 kts.
  Eline was located just south of an upper-level ridge axis and still
  maintained good outflow aloft.  A 19/2007 UTC TRMM pass showed well-
  defined low-level cloud lines north of the LLCC with deep convection
  confined to the southern and eastern quadrants.     The storm was
  experiencing some shear, but by 1200 UTC deep, persistent convection
  was once again located over the LLCC.

     Eline had initially trekked southwestward after exiting Madagascar,
  but around 20/1200 UTC turned to a westward track once more.    The
  storm was centered roughly 300 nm east-southeast of Beira, Mozambique,
  at this point.   MFR upped the MSW to 60 kts at 21/0000 UTC (JTWC's
  1-min MSW was 65 kts) and to 65 kts (cyclone intensity) by 1200 UTC.
  JTWC's MSW estimate then was 70 kts, so this was good agreement between
  the two.   CIMSS charts showed an improved environment for further
  strengthening with an upper-level trough to the southeast enhancing

     On 21 Feb Tropical Cyclone Eline turned to the northwest and its
  forward motion slowed considerably (to 3 kts) as it approached the
  Mozambique coast.   At 22/0000 UTC the cyclone displayed a 32-nm wide
  eye.   Microwave imagery depicted concentric eyewall features with
  strong rainbands.   Winds had reached 90 kts (10-min avg) by this
  time and continued to increase as the storm neared landfall.  Eline
  was being steered on the northwesterly course by a subtropical ridge
  located to the south-southwest of the cyclone.   Intense Tropical
  Cyclone Eline began to make landfall about 40 nm south of Beira around
  0300 UTC.    MFR estimated the maximum 10-min avg winds to be around
  100 kts at landfall.  JTWC's 22/1200 UTC warning indicated that the
  MSW (1-min avg) near the time of landfall was 115 kts, so this agrees
  well with RSMC La Reunion's assessment.  So once more this remarkable
  cyclone had intensified rapidly from minimal cyclone strength into an
  intense cyclone in about 18 hours when on the verge of making

     By 1200 UTC Eline was well inland about 50 nm southwest of Beira.
  MFR had quickly downgraded the winds to 45 kts, but JTWC reported the
  MSW (1-min avg) at 100 kts.     This was based strictly on satellite
  intensity estimates, however, and it seems quite unlikely that actual
  sustained winds to 100 kts would still be occurring almost ten hours
  after the center had made landfall--at least based on the behavior
  of landfalling Atlantic hurricanes in the United States.  By 0000 UTC
  on 23 Feb the weakening Eline had moved west-northwestward into
  eastern Zimbabwe and both JTWC and MFR issued their final warnings.
  A well-defined cloud system could be seen in satellite imagery for
  several days drifting slowly across the southern African continent.

     Tropical Cyclone Eline was quite destructive to Madagascar.  One
  report received by the author indicated that 10,000 persons were
  homeless and over 22,000 completely isolated due to flooding in the
  wake of Eline and Tropical Storm Gloria which struck the northern
  portion of the island in early March.      The towns of Mahanoro and
  Vatomandry were reportedly about 80% destroyed.  A report from OCHA
  (Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs) dated 23 Feb
  indicated that Eline caused six deaths on Madagascar--two deaths
  were reported in Antananarivo, the capital, where roofs were blown
  away and trees uprooted.   However, these figures were rather early,
  and in the author's opinion, the death toll was likely much higher.
  There were some media reports which indicated that much of the populace
  along the eastern coast of Madagascar had little advance warning of the
  cyclone's approach.

     In Mozambique the specific effects of Tropical Cyclone Eline are
  very difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish from the disastrous
  flooding already taking place when the storm made landfall.  Heavier
  than normal rainfall during the summer had led to widespread and severe
  flooding beginning in late January, and had already reached disastrous
  proportions by the time Eline made landfall in late February.   About
  all that can be said with certainty is that the cyclone exacerbated the
  situation to some degree.  Prior to Eline's arrival in Mozambique the
  flooding had already displaced 300,000 people while affecting as many
  as 800,000.      Roads, bridges, and other infrastructure items were
  severely damaged.    As of the end of March one report stated that the
  flooding was reponsible for over 1000 fatalities with over 4 million
  persons displaced and/or significantly affected.  The death toll could
  likely be much higher as large numbers of bodies were swept away by
  the flooding waters.     Two small fishing boats were sunk off Beira
  with the presumed loss of the crews.

     A special thanks to Matthew Saxby, Jean Marc de Maroussem, Patrick
  Hoareau, and Kelly Sponberg for sending me information on the effects
  of Eline and the flooding disaster in Africa.      For those who are
  interested, much more information can be found at the following

                  Tropical Storm Felicia  (TC-12S / SIO #7)
                              19 - 24 February

     An area of convection had developed by 17 Feb near 13S, 81E in the
  monsoon trough southeast of Diego Garcia.     A scatterometer pass
  indicated a broad LLCC with associated convection over a wide area.
  CIMSS shear charts indicated weak vertical shear over the area with
  fair outflow.  By 19 Feb the disturbed area was approximately 400 nm
  southeast of Diego Garcia with still poorly-organized but persistent
  convection.  MFR began issuing bulletins on disturbance #7 with winds
  near the center of 25 kts but with some localized winds to 30 kts
  possible well away from the center under the heavier convection.
  The system was classified as a tropical storm by MFR at 20/0000 UTC
  when it was located about 500 nm south-southeast of Diego Garcia,
  and had been named Felicia by Mauritius by 0600 UTC.  The 10-min avg
  MSW were estimated at 40 kts.  JTWC had not initiated warnings at
  this time but did issue a Formation Alert at 0530 UTC.   Felicia was
  moving on a generally west-southwesterly course at this time which
  later became more southwesterly.

     The storm was temporarily downgraded to a tropical depression by
  MFR at 1800 UTC but was reclassified as a tropical storm twelve hours
  later.  JTWC initiated warnings at 21/0000 UTC, placing the center
  about 675 nm east-northeast of Rodrigues Island with 35-kt winds (1-min
  avg).  An ERS-2 scatterometer pass at 20/1815 UTC indicated an
  elongated LLCC with winds of 25-30 kts to the west with strong
  convection organizing on that side.     Felicia was undergoing some
  northeasterly shear but continued to slowly intensify as a band of
  convection began to develop south of the center.

     At 22/0000 UTC JTWC estimated the MSW (1-min) to be 45 kts based
  on satellite intensity estimates of 30 and 55 kts.  Microwave imagery
  depicted strong convection organizing on the west side of the LLCC in
  a developing banding feature.  The storm had good outflow to the south
  and fair in other quadrants.  JTWC maintained the 45-kt MSW at 1200 UTC
  but MFR increased their estimate to 55 kts at 0600 UTC and to 60 kts
  by 1800 UTC.   Felicia was located about 385 nm due east of Rodrigues
  Island at 22/0000 UTC and thereafter began to move on more of a south-
  southwesterly track.   

     JTWC assigned its peak MSW estimate of 50 kts at 23/0000 UTC.  A
  mid-level trough to the west was building equatorward and was expected
  to turn Felicia to the south and then southeast, but the severe
  tropical storm continued to move south-southwestward throughout its
  life.      Animated infrared and visible satellite imagery showed
  convection being sheared to the southeast away from the LLCC--the shear
  being caused by the approaching trough.  At 1200 UTC JTWC decreased
  the MSW (1-min) to 40 kts (based on CI numbers of 35 and 55 kts), but
  MFR maintained Felicia at 60 kts through 1200 UTC, then began to
  decrease the intensity estimates rather quickly.

     At 0000 UTC on 24 Feb the weakening storm was still tracking south-
  southwestward at 10 kts.  JTWC assigned a MSW estimate of 30 kts and
  wrote their last warning; MFR had decreased Felicia's intensity to
  40 kts by this time.   The storm displayed an exposed LLCC with
  rapidly decaying convection being sheared southeastward; also, dry air
  was starting to be entrained into the system.   MFR wrote their final
  warning at 0600 UTC, estimating the MSW (10-min) at 30 kts and judging
  the system to be transitioning into an extratropical LOW.  The final
  MFR position placed the dissipating Felicia about 665 nm south-
  southeast of Rodrigues Island.

                   Tropical Storm Gloria  (TC-15S / SIO #8)
                           28 February - 5 March

     At 27/0930 UTC JTWC issued a Formation Alert on a hitherto
  previously unmentioned area of convection east of northern Madagascar,
  with a LLCC located near 13.9S, 61.8E.  Microwave imagery at 27/0155
  UTC suggested that at least a well-defined mid-level circulation
  had formed within the convective area.      The cloud pattern was
  becoming more circular and upper-level outflow was improving since
  vertical shear across the region had decreased, and the Formation
  Alert noted that rapid intensification might be possible due to the
  well-developed mid-level circulation and the recent increase in deep
  convection near the center.   MFR initiated bulletins on the system
  as disturbance #8 at 0600 UTC on the 28th when the system was located
  roughly 600 nm east-southeast of the northern tip of Madagascar.
  Winds were estimated at 25 kts with some 30-kt winds possible locally
  in areas to the south of the center.

     JTWC began issuing warnings at 1200 UTC with the MSW estimated at
  30 kts (1-min avg).  Convective organization had continued to improve
  with good outflow to the west but restricted to the east.  The system
  was expected to intensify slowly due to moderate easterly shear.
  At 29/0000 UTC JTWC upped the MSW to 35 kts and MFR upgraded the LOW
  to a tropical depression.   The depression was moving westward under
  the steering influence of a large subtropical ridge to the south.
  There was some moderate vertical shear present and the majority of
  the deep convection was located west of the LLCC.  JTWC increased the
  MSW to 40 kts at 1200 UTC based on a convective bursting near the
  center.   Outflow was excellent to the west but poor to the east due
  to the shear.      At 29/1800 UTC the center of the depression was
  located approximately 300 nm east of the northern tip of Madagascar
  and was moving somewhat north of due west.

     The system began to show definite signs of strengthening on 1 Mar.
  JTWC had increased their MSW estimate to 45 kts at 0000 UTC and to
  55 kts at 1200 UTC.   The depression had become Tropical Storm Gloria
  at 0600 UTC, and by 1200 UTC was moving southwestward at 9 kts.
  Gloria's center made landfall in Madagascar around 1800 UTC near
  Antsirabe.    JTWC's MSW estimate (1-min avg) at landfall was 65 kts.
  This was based on infrared imagery and a SSM/I pass at 1725 UTC which
  showed a 15-nm wide closed eye along the coast.     MFR's intensity
  estimate at landfall was somewhat lower at 45 kts (10-min avg).

     By 02/0000 UTC Gloria was inland over Madagascar and weakening.
  JTWC reported the MSW to be 45 kts based on satellite intensity
  estimates of 35 and 45 kts (the MFR warning at this time was not
  available to the author).   At 0600 UTC Gloria had weakened into
  a depression and MFR issued its final warning.   JTWC continued to
  follow the weak system for the next three days as it drifted south-
  westward across the northern and central portions of Madagascar.
  Gloria's remnants maintained a LLCC fairly well for over 24 hours
  after landfall, but gradually became more diffuse and difficult to
  locate.       Apparently JTWC continued to issue warnings since
  re-intensification over the Mozambique Channel was consistently
  forecast.   The weak center appeared to have emerged into the Channel
  by around 0600 UTC on 4 Mar.  There was some isolated convection with
  low-level cumulus and stratocumulus clouds wrapping into the LLCC.
  By 1200 UTC some new convection was developing south and east of the

     At 0000 UTC on 5 Mar JTWC still forecast some very modest
  intensification, but at 0600 UTC the final warning was written.  The
  weak and fully-exposed LLCC was located about 70 nm west of Morondava
  with weak, isolated convection about 100 nm east of the center over
  land.   Synoptic data showed surface pressures near 1010 mb and winds
  averaging less than 10 kts around the LLCC.     200-mb analysis and
  CIMSS shear charts also revealed an environment unfavorable for

     Tropical Storm Gloria brought heavy rainfall to northern Madagascar.
  An island (Nosy Be) near northwestern Madagascar reported 165 mm of
  rain in the 24 hours ending at 0600 UTC on 2 Mar (the monthly average
  is 295 mm).   Mananjary recorded 427 mm in a 48-hour period ending at
  05/0600 UTC.  (Mananjary's average monthly rainfall is 478 mm.)  The
  highest death toll available to the author was 137.  Andapa was the
  most severely affected city with 40 dead and 33 unaccounted for.  Over
  100 homes were destroyed there with widespread structural damage
  occurring.    Also, an outbreak of cholera added to the misery of the
  population.   The road linking this region to the capital was rendered
  unpassable, and this was expected to have a substantial negative impact
  on the region's economy.   (A special thanks to Patrick Hoareau, Jean
  Marc de Maroussem, and Matthew Saxby for passing along information on
  the effects of Gloria in Madagascar.)

                        ADDENDUM to JANUARY SUMMARY

     Arvind Mungur of London sent me some information on Tropical Cyclone
  Connie which he had gleaned from the Mauritian daily _Le Mauricien_.
  Connie passed about 130 nm northwest of Mauritius on 28 Jan and a peak
  gust of 73 kts was recorded on the island with a 24-hour rainfall total
  of 262 mm reported.


  AUSTRALIAN REGION (AUG) - From Longitude 90E Eastward to Longitude 160E

  Activity for February:  1 tropical LOW
                          1 tropical cyclone of gale intensity **
                          1 tropical cyclone of storm intensity
                          1 severe tropical cyclone (hurricane)

  ** - This system, Tropical Cyclone Marcia, was never carried as a
       tropical cyclone by JTWC.

     The primary sources of information for Australian Region tropical
  cyclones are the warnings and bulletins issued by the three TCWCs
  at Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane.   Information gleaned from JTWC's
  warnings is used as a supplement for times when it was impossible to
  obtain Australian bulletins and for comparison purposes.  References
  to sustained winds should be understood as being based on a 10-min 
  averaging period unless otherwise noted.
    Matthew Saxby, a tropical cyclone enthusiast from Queanbeyan, New
  South Wales, Australia, typed up the tracks for the cyclones and LOWs
  in the Australian Region.  Also, Carl Smith, another dedicated tropical
  cyclone enthusiast from the Gold Coast of Queensland, sent reports he
  had written for Tropical Cyclones Steve, Leon, and Marcia.  Also, Lori
  Chappel of the Darwin TCWC sent me a report on Cyclone Steve's passage
  through the Darwin AOR.     Most of the material presented below is
  based upon these reports.   A special thanks to Lori, Carl and Matthew
  for passing along the information to me.

  A description of the Australian Cyclone Severity Scale can be found in
  Chris Landsea's FAQ on HRD's website:>

  on Michael Bath's Australian Severe Weather site:>

  or on the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's official website:>
     Click on the link 'Cyclone Severity Categories'

  Carl Smith has a website on which he has placed his full reports on
  the various cyclones in the Australian Region this season, as well as
  map animations which he has created for the storms.  The URL is:>

  Links to various reports and map animations can be found under the
  link 'TC Reports & Map Animations'.

                  Australian Region Activity for February

     Tropical cyclone activity in the Australian Region picked up
  somewhat in February with three cyclones being named during the month
  as opposed to only one in January.   Tropical Cyclone Leon reached
  hurricane intensity early in the month in the Southeast Indian Ocean,
  weakened, then moved across 90E into the Southwest Indian basin to
  become the long-lived and destructive Tropical Cyclone Eline.  Marcia
  was a short-lived, marginal cyclone which popped up around mid-month
  in waters to the southeast of Cocos Island.    Another tropical LOW 
  was getting organized off Western Australia as the month ended and
  intensified into Severe Tropical Cyclone Norman in early March.

     In the Coral Sea what appeared to be a rapidly developing midget
  cyclone warranted three warnings from Brisbane on 19 Feb, but the
  system just as quickly began to weaken.   The first warning, issued
  at 19/0100 UTC, had placed the LOW's center about 225 nm east-southeast
  of Townsville, or near the Creal Reef AWS.  At 1900 UTC on 18 Feb the
  station had reported 10-min mean winds of 31 kts with the pressure
  dropping to 1006.1 mb.     Initially, the LOW displayed a good cloud
  signature in visible satellite imagery through 19/0500 UTC as it was
  under very diffluent upper-level flow.  However, it then moved under
  unfavorable southerly flow and weakened rapidly.   The LOW moved
  northeastward in the direction of Lihou Reef where it became stationary
  and ill-defined.   The LOW which was the precursor of Tropical Cyclone
  Steve developed in the same general area a few days later and there is
  a possibility that Steve was a redevelopment of the earlier LOW.

     This second LOW intensified rapidly on 26 Feb while approaching the
  Cairns, Queensland area into a near-hurricane.  After weakening over
  land, the ex-Steve LOW re-intensified in the Gulf of Carpentaria and
  made a second landfall in the western Gulf region on 1 Mar, weakened
  again, and later re-intensified a third time in the Southeast Indian
  Ocean and made two more subsequent landfalls in Australia.    I have
  chosen to split the coverage of Steve between the February and March
  summaries.    (Most of the data on the LOW of 19 Feb came from Jeff
  Callaghan of the Brisbane TCWC--a special thanks to Jeff for passing
  the information along.)

                 Severe Tropical Cyclone Leon-Eline (TC-11S)
                               3 - 23 February

     On 3 Feb at 0100 UTC the Perth TCWC issued a High Seas Warning for
  a 1000-mb tropical LOW which had developed about 325 nm east of
  Christmas Island and was moving west-southwestward at 5 kts.  At 1400
  UTC JTWC issued a Formation Alert on the LOW.    Animated infrared
  satellite imagery revealed disorganised but persistent convection
  associated with a LLCC.  CIMSS analysis indicated weak to moderate
  vertical shear over the area and animated water vapour imagery depicted
  fair outflow aloft.   JTWC issued their first warning for TC-11S at
  04/0300 UTC with the MSW (1-min avg) estimated at 30 kts.  Data from a
  scatterometer pass indicated an elongated LLCC.    About this time
  a boat carrying 500 (apparently) refugees from the Middle East arrived
  on Christmas Island, and the seas kicked up by the LOW were so rough
  that the boat had to be escorted into a bay on the leeward side of the
  island where the people were removed a few at a time by small boat.

     At 0400 UTC BoM Perth upgraded the LOW to Tropical Cyclone Leon with
  45-kt winds, located about 115 nm south-southeast of Christmas Island,
  and moving west-southwestward at 10 kts.  Leon quickly gained intensity
  whilst moving on a track that became more southwesterly.   Peak
  intensity of 960 mb and 75-kt MSW (10-min avg) was attained at
  1000 UTC on 5 Feb about 300 nm south-southwest of Christmas Island.
  (This was per BoM Perth's analysis--JTWC reported the 1-min avg MSW
  at only 55 kts at this point.)    Following this, Perth's MSW dropped
  slightly to 65 kts but then increased again to 70 kts by 06/0400 UTC.
  JTWC's 1-min avg MSW estimate had also increased to 70 kts by this
  juncture.   Convective organisation had improved during this period
  but enhanced infrared imagery showed that the cyclone was undergoing
  some northeasterly shear.  SSM/I imagery on the 6th revealed that the
  LLCC was under the northeastern region of the convection and that the
  convection had become more symmetric.

     However, on 7 Feb warnings from both agencies indicated a weakening
  trend as the upper-level anticyclone weakened and shifted east of the
  LLCC, thereby increasing northerly vertical shear.  Leon's track turned
  to a westerly heading with the storm passing about 275 nm south of 
  Cocos Island around 0400 UTC on the 7th.   Weakening continued as Leon
  approached the western boundary of BoM Perth's AOR with most of the
  significant convection sheared to the south of the LLCC.  MSW were
  down to around 40 kts by the time Leon crossed 90E into the Southwest
  Indian basin at a point about 500 nm west-southwest of Cocos Island
  and was renamed Eline by the Mauritius Meteorological Service.

     Although at this point it looked as if Leon-Eline were on its last
  leg, subsequent warnings from JTWC forecast a regeneration of the
  system.   While the storm remained quite weak for several days, it
  did ultimately re-intensify and before it was through, had traveled
  almost one-quarter of the way around the globe and made two destructive
  landfalls in the western portion of the South Indian Ocean.   The
  history of this system as Tropical Cyclone Eline is detailed in the
  section of this summary covering the Southwest Indian basin.

                          Tropical Cyclone Marcia
                              15 - 21 February

     A Tropical Weather Outlook for the Central Indian Ocean issued by
  BoM Perth at 0400 UTC on 15 Feb mentioned a 1000-mb tropical LOW
  located about 290 nm east-southeast of Cocos Island.   The first
  warning, issued at 0900 UTC, located the center somewhat farther to
  the south and east.   The system remained basically quasi-stationary
  over the next day or two with a slight increase in organisation.
  The LOW was upgraded to Tropical Cyclone Marcia at 0300 UTC on 16 Feb
  at a point roughly 325 nm east-southeast of Cocos Island.   JTWC
  issued a Formation Alert at 0500 UTC which stated that winds were
  estimated to be 25-30 kts in the area.  Animated visible and infrared
  satellite imagery indicated a well-defined LLCC within the monsoon
  trough with convection continuing to organise around the center.

     By 1000 UTC the estimated CP and MSW (10-min avg) were 992 mb and
  45 kts, respectively, and Marcia was moving east-southeastward at
  3 kts.   The Perth warning at 1600 UTC relocated Marcia's centre about
  35 nm east of the previous warning position.    The marginal cyclone
  was looking less impressive by this time and winds were dropped to
  40 kts.   Perth issued their final warning at 17/0400 UTC with Marcia
  centered about 375 nm south-southwest of Christmas Island.  Winds were
  expected to moderate below gale force within the next six hours.

     Perth continued to mention the system in daily Tropical Weather
  Outlooks for a couple of days, and JTWC issued daily Formation Alerts
  through 19/0500 UTC, but never commenced issuing warnings.  (If this
  system had been in the Northwest Pacific basin where JTWC's warning
  criteria is more liberal, likely it would have been classified as
  a tropical depression.)   The ill-defined LOW continued to drift
  generally southeastward for a couple of days, as tracked by JTWC in
  their daily STWOs, being last mentioned on 21 Feb when it was located
  roughly over 400 nm to the south-southeast of Christmas Island.

                      Tropical Cyclone Steve  (TC-14P)
                           25 February - 12 March

     On 25 Feb a developing tropical LOW with a CP of 1000 mb was located
  approximately 300 nm east-southeast of Cooktown on the Queensland
  coast.  Satellite-derived wind data indicated extensive areas of west
  to northwesterly winds averaging between 30 and 40 kts to the north
  and northeast of the centre.    (This LOW was possibly a redevelopment
  of the LOW for which Brisbane issued three warnings on 19 Feb.  See
  comments in the introductory paragraphs above for more information
  on the earlier system.)  The system moved westward, slowly becoming
  better organised, and by 26/1800 UTC was located about 115 nm east of
  Port Douglas with the pressure having fallen to 996 mb.   JTWC issued
  its first warning at 1800 UTC, estimating the MSW (1-min avg) at
  35 kts based upon satellite current intensity estimates of 30 kts
  and a synoptic observation of a 10-min mean wind of 32 kts.  Infrared
  imagery indicated continued organisation of the system with convection
  building over the LLCC.

     At 2000 UTC, in a special marine warning, the Brisbane TCWC named
  the LOW Tropical Cyclone Steve, placing the center about 100 nm east-
  northeast of Cairns.   The CP was reported as 994 mb and the maximum
  10-min avg winds were estimated at 40 kts.   Steve remained stationary
  for several hours and then began to move generally on a west-
  southwesterly track toward the coast.   Animated water vapour imagery
  revealed good outflow aloft--especially to the north--and weak vertical
  wind shear across the region.   Shortly after being named as a cyclone,
  Steve began to intensify rather rapidly.    By 27/0100 UTC the cyclone
  was centered about 65 nm east-northeast of Cairns with the CP having
  fallen to 988 mb and the MSW (10-min avg) estimated at 50 kts.

     Cyclone Steve crossed the coastline in the Cairns area around 0900
  UTC with an attendant CP of 975 mb and MSW (10-min avg) likely in
  the 60-65 kt range.  The eye passed very close to Green Island where
  a 10-min mean wind of 62 kts with gusts to 85 kts was recorded at
  0830 UTC.  Landfall was slightly to the north of Cairns which measured
  a maximum 10-min wind of 56 kts and peak gusts to 77 kts around 0851
  UTC.    The exact center seems to have passed over Kuranda which,
  unfortunately, does not send in weather observations.   The radius
  of gales for Steve was very small--on the order of 15-20 nm.  The
  10-min avg maximum wind observations from Cairns and Green Island
  would translate into a 1-min avg MSW of around 65-70 kts, making Steve
  a minimal hurricane by Northern Hemisphere standards--well above the
  40-kt MSW estimated by JTWC shortly before landfall.  The contention
  that midget cyclones are often much more intense than they sometimes
  appear--an idea often espoused by Mark Lander--is certainly supported
  by this case.  (Most of the above meteorological information was sent
  by Sue Oates of BoM Brisbane to Matthew Saxby, who in turn forwarded
  it to Carl Smith and myself.)

     Rainfall totals were not exceptionally large for a tropical cyclone.
  Some of the higher totals from the area include Kuranda - 291 mm;
  Mt. Sophia - 269 mm; and Mareeba - 218 mm.  However, Cairns recorded
  its wettest February on record with the suburb of Manunda measuring
  1462.7 mm and Bartlefrere recording 3376 mm.  In the Cairns area many
  trees were uprooted and some buildings were unroofed.   Hundreds of
  homes reportedly suffered damage to some degree with more than 40,000
  homes without electrical power.  Many roads were blocked with downed
  trees and the Bruce Highway was cut by flooding.  In Cairns a really
  giant fig tree was uprooted with the entire root system out of the
  ground.  It apparently became the "cool" thing for tourists to have
  their photos taken standing by the tree--the root bowl being taller
  than some adults of shorter stature.

     By 1200 UTC Steve had been downgraded to a Category 1 cyclone on
  the Australian Cyclone Scale when it was about 40 nm west of Cairns,
  moving west at 16 kts.  Some gales with gusts to 60 kts were still
  being felt along the coast and adjacent inland areas between Cairns
  and Port Douglas but were expected to ease within a few hours.  The
  final advice (for the time being) was issued by Brisbane at 1300 UTC,
  downgrading Steve to a LOW which was continuing to move further inland
  while weakening.   The LOW moved somewhat to the west-southwest and
  by around 0730 UTC on 28 Feb was located near Normanton, southeast
  of the Gulf of Carpentaria.      By 1330 UTC the system had changed
  direction and was moving west-northwestward over water in the Gulf of
  Carpentaria about 40 nm northwest of Karumba.

     A strong mid-level circulation was maintained under a divergent
  upper trough while the system was over land, and as soon as the center
  moved back over water, the LOW began to regain intensity and was
  renamed Cyclone Steve by Darwin at 28/2230 UTC.    The cyclone was
  located near Mornington Island and was moving west-northwestward at
  8 kts.      Gales with gusts to 65 kts were being experienced between
  Mornington Island and the Queensland/Northern Territory border.  After
  regaining cyclone status Steve initially continued moving to the
  west-northwest, then turned to a westerly course as it approached the
  Northern Territory coast along the western Gulf of Carpentaria.  With
  warm SSTs and good to excellent upper-level outflow in all quadrants,
  the storm intensified slightly with the MSW increasing to 45 kts (per
  both Darwin and JTWC) by the time Steve made landfall around 0000 UTC
  on 1 Mar near Bing Bong.

     Centre Island reported gales from 2030-2230 UTC on 29 Feb as the
  cyclone approached and passed just north of the AWS.   The maximum
  10-min mean wind was 38 kts at 2224 UTC with the peak gust of 50 kts
  occurring at 2145 UTC.  The cyclone moved across the Bing Bong port
  office after passing Centre Island.   A minimum pressure of 987 mb
  was reported but mean winds were no more than 20-25 kts (as estimated
  from white caps on the water visible from the office).  A calm lasting
  about 45 minutes was observed as the center passed by.   Damage from
  Steve in this portion of Australia was very light.     No damage was
  reported from Bing Bong, while Borroloola township, about 60 km inland
  from Bing Bong, reported some uprooting of small trees.

     After making its second landfall Tropical Cyclone Steve continued
  westward across the Northern Territory, maintaining a strong low- to
  mid-level circulation.  Gale-force winds were observed in the Timor
  Sea in the monsoon westerly flow to the north of the LOW and storm-
  force wind gusts were observed across the Top End.  The LOW moved just
  south of the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf and into the Kimberley region of
  Western Australia, and once more reformed into a cyclone just north
  of Broome on 5 March.   The subsequent history of Tropical Cyclone
  Steve in the Timor Sea and Southeast Indian Ocean will be covered in
  the March summary.


  SOUTHWEST PACIFIC (SWP) - South Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 160E

  Activity for February:  1 tropical depression
                          1 tropical cyclone of hurricane intensity

     Most of the information presented below was taken from the
  operational warnings and advisories issued by the Fiji TCWC at Nadi.  
  References to sustained winds imply a 10-minute averaging period
  unless otherwise noted.  Also, the basic definition of a cyclone in
  WMO Region 5 (Australia and the South Pacific) has the unique
  requirement that a depression must have gale-force winds more-or-less
  completely surrounding the center before the system is named as a
  tropical cyclone.  Hence, often gales of 35-40 kts may be present in 
  one or two quadrants but the system is not considered a tropical 
  cyclone.  Last season Fiji initiated their own numbering scheme for
  tropical disturbances (01F, 02F, etc) that form in the Nadi AOR. 
  Some of the numbered disturbances never warrant depression status.

     The report on Tropical Cyclone Kim was written by Alipate
  Waqaicelua, Chief Forecaster at the Nadi TCWC, with only minimal
  editing by myself.  Also, I received some information on damage caused
  by Kim from Steve Ready of the New Zealand Meteorological Service.
  A very special thanks to Alipate and Steve for sending along the

                  Southwest Pacific Activity for February

     One tropical cyclone, Kim, came to life in the South Pacific east
  of 160E during February, and surprisingly was unusually far to the east
  of the normal cyclogenetical region--in the very edge of the tropics
  to the southeast of French Polynesia.    Most people expect tropical
  cyclone formation to occur this far east only during warm ENSO events
  (El Ninos), but according to information received from Steve Ready
  of the New Zealand Meteorological Service, tropical cyclones of higher-
  latitude origin do occasionally develop in this region during La Nina
  seasons.      In February, 1989, Tropical Cyclone Hinano developed
  near 27.0S, 127.3W while at about the same time Tropical Cyclone Judy
  formed near 19.0S, 152.0W.  Both of these systems were midgets which
  sported eyes in satellite imagery.  Also, Tropical Cyclone Frances
  became a hurricane near 25.0S, 150.0W in February, 1976, during another
  strong La Nina.  All three of these cyclones had a pronounced westerly
  component to their tracks.   Also, in some correspondence from months
  back, Mark Lander mentioned that the Southeast Pacific was the only
  area outside the North Atlantic and the Northwestern Pacific which
  normally has a well-developed TUTT which occasionally helps to trigger
  the formation of higher-latitude midget tropical cyclones.

     In addition to Tropical Cyclone Kim, another system was designated
  as Tropical Depression 13F at the end of the month.  This depression
  formed about 125 nm north of Noumea in New Caledonia on 28 Feb and
  subsequently moved south-southeastward and into the Wellington AOR
  on the 29th.  Gale warnings were issued on 29 Feb as gale-force winds
  were forecast to be occurring in the southern semicircle well-removed
  from the center.  

                   Tropical Cyclone Kim  (TC-13P / TC-11F)
                              23 - 29 February

     A tropical depression was analysed by RSMC Nadi over the south-
  eastern parts of French Polynesia (near 23.3S, 134.0W), approximately
  60 nm east-southeast of Rikitea or about 270 nm northwest of Pitcairn
  Island at 23/1800 UTC, moving slowly northwestward.   The system was
  being subjected to significant shear as the LLCC was clearly exposed
  at some distance northwest of the deep convection.   Aloft, at 250 mb,
  the depression was situated just west of an upper-level ridge axis.  A
  little over 24 hours later, no substantial change had occurred, except
  for convection beginning to develop about the LLCC.    However, by
  24/1200 UTC, convection had erupted over the LLCC and cooled
  considerably.  Spiral bands were also better organised and wrapping
  with more curvature amid the presence of some shear.   At this time,
  the depression was moving westward about 5 kts and was located just
  west of Rikitea.   The system continued to develop further through the
  night, and by 24/1800 UTC was named Tropical Cyclone Kim about 40 nm 
  west of Rikitea or about 200 nm southeast of Mururoa.

     Twelve hours later, at 25/0600 UTC, Kim attained storm force
  (48 kts) and reached hurricane intensity at 25/1200 UTC after a ragged
  eye was observed on satellite imagery only 18 hours after being named.
  At this stage the cyclone was being steered west-southwestward with 
  anticipation of a gradual turn and eventual southwesterly track into 
  New Zealand's AOR.   Kim continued to intensify with deep convection 
  cooling further and the rather broad eye at 25/1800 UTC becoming 
  well-defined and contracting.    After 26/0000 UTC the cyclone also
  gradually picked up speed under the strengthening mid-level north-
  easterly steering regime.   Primary responsibility for warnings on
  Tropical Cyclone Kim was handed over to New Zealand after 26/0600 UTC.
     Tropical Cyclone Kim reached its peak intensity of 80 kts (10-min
  avg) six hours later at 1200 UTC, still moving to the southwest.  The
  storm was then located over 500 nm west of Pitcairn Island or more
  than 700 nm southeast of Tahiti.   The estimated minimum CP in Kim was
  955 mb, and the estimated peak 1-min avg MSW from NPMOC was 100 kts,
  which agrees quite well with Wellington's assessment.   After reaching
  its peak, the cyclone began to steadily weaken as it continued to trek
  toward the southwest over increasingly cooler SSTs.   By 29/0600 UTC
  Kim was becoming extratropical as it still moved southwestward nearly
  1000 nm south of Tahiti.

     No damage reports have been received as yet, even though, from its 
  track, it can be inferred that damage, if any, especially in Rikitea, 
  would be either minimal or negligible.   Kim was probably a hybrid 
  (with more baroclinic traits) that gradually and eventually developed 
  deep convection all around the LLCC and hence attained tropical 
  cyclone characteristics further south than usual.  Kim developed in an
  area of a fairly warm SST anomaly--approximately 2 to 3 deg Celsius
  warmer than average.

     Some information received later from Steve Ready of the New Zealand
  Meteorological Service:  During the early stages of its development,
  Kim passed over the islands of Rikitea about 1200 UTC on 24 Feb.
  Rikitea recorded a maximum 10-min avg wind of 27 kts, a peak gust of
  52 kts, and a minimum pressure of 996 mb.  During its hurricane phase
  Kim passed to the east and south of the island of Rapa on 27 and 28
  Feb.   The lowest pressure of 995.8 mb was reported when the eye was
  located about 80 nm from the island.  The maximum 10-min avg wind was
  less than 30 kts and the peak gust was 74 kts.  Rapa lay on the more
  sheltered side of the cyclone.  According to Jacki Pilon, Meteo France
  in French Polynesia, there was no loss of life and material damage
  was relatively minor--just a few trees were uprooted and a few less
  substantial homes lost their corrugated iron roofing.


                              EXTRA FEATURE

     In order to shorten the amount of typing in preparing the narrative
  material, I have been in the habit of freely using abbreviations and
  acronyms.   I have tried to define most of these with the first usage
  in a given summary, but I may have missed one now and then.  Most of
  these are probably understood by a majority of readers but perhaps a
  few aren't clear to some.  To remedy this I developed a Glossary of
  Abbreviations and Acronyms which I included in the July, 1998 summary.
  I will include this glossary from time to time, primarily in "lean"
  months without a lot of tropical cyclone activity to cover.  But if
  anyone missed receiving it and wishes to obtain a copy, send me an
  e-mail privately and I'll forward them a copy.


  AUTHOR'S NOTE:  This summary should be considered a very preliminary 
  overview of the tropical cyclones that occur in each month. The cyclone
  tracks (provided separately) will generally be based upon operational
  warnings issued by the various tropical cyclone warning centers.  The
  information contained therein may differ somewhat from the tracking and
  intensity information obtained from a "best-track" file which is based
  on a detailed post-seasonal analysis of all available data. Information
  on where to find official "best-track" files from the various warning
  centers will be passed along from time to time.

    The track files are not being sent via e-mail.  They can be retrieved
  in the following manner:

       (a) FTP to: []
       (b) Login as: anonymous
       (c) For a password use your e-mail address
       (d) Go to "data" subdirectory (Type: cd data)
       (e) Set file type to ASCII (Type: ascii)
       (f) Transfer file (Type: get remote_file_name local_file_name )
           (The files will be named with an obvious nomenclature--using
           February as an example:   feb00.tracks)
       (g) To exit FTP, type: quit

    Both the summaries and the track files are standard text files
  created in DOS editor.  Download to disk and use a viewer such as
  Notepad or DOS editor to view the files.

     The first summary in this series covered the month of October,
  1997.   If anyone wishes to retrieve any of the previous summaries,
  they may be downloaded from the aforementioned FTP site at HRD.  The
  summary files are catalogued with the nomenclature:  feb00.sum, for

    Back issues can also be obtained from the following websites
  (courtesy of Michael Bath, Michael V. Padua, Tom Berg, Michael
  Pitt, and Rich Henning):>>>>>

     Another website where much information about tropical cyclones may
  be found is the website for the UK Meteorological Office.  Their site
  contains a lot of statistical information about tropical cyclones
  globally on a monthly basis.  The URL is:>


     I have discovered that JTWC now has available on its new website
  the complete Annual Tropical Cyclone Report (ATCR) for 1998 (1997-1998
  season for the Southern Hemisphere).  Also, ATCRs for earlier years
  are available also.

     The URL is:>

     Also, TPC/NHC has available on its webpage nice "technicolor"
  tracking charts for the 1999 Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific
  tropical cyclones; also, preliminary storm reports for all the 1999
  Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific tropical cyclones are now available.

     The URL is:>

  Prepared by: Gary Padgett
  Phone:  334-222-5327 (nights & weekends) / 850-882-2594 (weekdays)


Document: summ0002.htm
Updated: 4th January 2007

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